S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 11, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

 

Form S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

GLADSTONE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   02-0681276

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification Number)

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, Virginia 22102

(703) 287-5800

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

David J. Gladstone

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, Virginia 22102

(703) 287-5800

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Michael B. LiCalsi, Esq.

Gladstone Management Corporation

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, Virginia 22102

Telephone: (703) 287-5800

Facsimile: (703) 287-5899

 

Lori B. Morgan, Esq.

Sehrish Siddiqui, Esq.

Bass, Berry & Sims PLC

150 Third Avenue South, Suite 2800

Nashville, TN 37201

Telephone: (615) 742-6280

Facsimile: (615) 742-2780

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐


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If this form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.    ☐

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered (1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

per Share (1)(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share (3)

             

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share (3)

             

Debt Securities (3)

             

Depositary Shares (4)

             

Subscription Rights (3)

               

Total

          $500,000,000   $26,995.88(5)

 

 

(1)

Omitted pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

(2)

The registrant will determine the proposed maximum offering price per share from time to time in connection with, and at the time of, the issuance of the securities registered hereunder. Securities registered hereby may be offered for U.S. dollars or in foreign currencies or currency units and may be sold separately or together in units with other securities registered hereby.

(3)

Also includes such indeterminate principal amount, liquidation amount or number of securities as may be issued upon conversion or exchange of any securities that provide for conversion or exchange into other securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received by the registrant for securities that are issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities. The aggregate maximum offering price of all securities offered and sold by the registrant pursuant to this registration statement shall not have a maximum aggregate offering price that exceeds $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars or the equivalent at the time of offering in any other currency.

(4)

Each depositary share will be issued under a deposit agreement, will represent an interest in a fractional share or multiple shares of preferred stock and will be evidenced by a depositary receipt.

(5)

Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) of the Securities Act. In accordance with Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, the registrant is hereby including in this registration statement (the “Registration Statement”) $277,261,701 of common stock, that was previously registered on Form S-3, File No. 333-208953 (the “2016 Registration Statement”), which was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on February 1, 2016, but that have not yet been sold by the registrant pursuant to its continuous offering of up to $500,000,000 of common stock. In accordance with Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, the 2016 Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the effective date of this Registration Statement. Additionally, in connection with the filing of the 2016 Registration Statement, registration fees of $47,745.52 were submitted, and, in accordance with Rule 457(p) of the Securities Act, the registrant is carrying forward $33,604.12 of unused registration fees to offset the current registration fee due for the securities registered pursuant to this registration statement and is submitting herewith an additional $26,995.88 in filing fees for the securities registered hereby.

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the SEC acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 11, 2019

PROSPECTUS

$500,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Depositary Shares

Subscription Rights

 

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time, one or more series or classes of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, depositary shares and subscription rights (collectively, the “securities”). We may offer these securities with an aggregate initial public offering price of up to $500,000,000, or its equivalent in a foreign currency based upon the exchange rate at the time of sale, in amounts, at initial prices and on terms determined at the time of the offering. We may offer these securities separately or together, in separate series or classes and in amounts, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus.

We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement with, between or among them, will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in an accompanying prospectus supplement. For more detailed information, see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.

No securities may be sold without delivery of an accompanying prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities. Accordingly, we will deliver this prospectus together with an accompanying prospectus supplement setting forth the specific terms of the securities that we are offering. The specific terms may include limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities offered by this prospectus, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a real estate investment trust for federal income tax purposes, among other purposes. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” before you make your investment decision.

Our shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 7.00% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbols “GOOD,” “GOODP,” “GOODO,” and “GOODM,” respectively.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves substantial risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus, as well as the “Risk Factors” incorporated by reference herein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other reports and information that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission from time to time.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2019


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS     1  
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS     1  
THE COMPANY     3  
RISK FACTORS     4  
USE OF PROCEEDS     4  
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK     4  
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES     12  
DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES     19  
DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS     21  
BOOK ENTRY PROCEDURES AND SETTLEMENT     22  
CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS     22  
MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS     27  
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION     52  
LEGAL MATTERS     55  
EXPERTS     55  
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION     55  
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE     55  
EXHIBITS     II-2  

No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus that we may provide to you in connection with an offering of securities. You must not rely upon any unauthorized information or representations not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus. This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor does this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. The information contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement, any free writing prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein are accurate only as of the date of such document. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, funds from operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process for the offering and sale of securities pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“the Securities Act”). Under the shelf registration process, we may, over time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities that we may offer. As allowed by SEC rules, this prospectus does not contain all of the information that you can find in the registration statement or the exhibits thereto. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement, including any amendments thereto, including its exhibits.

We will not use this prospectus to offer and sell securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement that more fully describes the securities being offered and the terms of such offering. Any accompanying prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also update, amend or supersede other information contained in this prospectus. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus together with the information incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein as described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” below.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events and are not statements of historical fact. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future events, including, among other things, discussion and analysis of our future financial condition, results of operations and funds from operations, our strategic plans and objectives, cost management, occupancy and leasing rates and trends, liquidity and ability to refinance our indebtedness as it matures, anticipated capital expenditures (and access to capital) required to complete projects, amounts of anticipated cash distributions to our stockholders in the future and other matters. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “will,” “should,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “provided,” “future,” “could,” “would,” “growth,” “if,” “possible,” “potential” and “likely” and variations of these words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, are difficult to predict and/or could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, are forward-looking by their nature:

 

   

future re-leasing efforts;

 

   

our business and financing strategy;

 

   

our ability to continue to implement our business plan;

 

   

pending and future transactions;

 

   

our projected operating results and anticipated acquisitions;

 

   

our ability to obtain future financing arrangements;

 

   

estimates relating to our future distributions;

 

   

our understanding of our competition and our ability to compete effectively;

 

   

future market and industry trends;

 

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future interest and insurance rates;

 

   

estimates of our future operating expenses, including payments to our Adviser and Administrator (as defined herein) under the terms of our advisory and administration agreements;

 

   

the impact of technology on our operations and business, including the risk of cyberattacks;

 

   

projected capital expenditures; and

 

   

future use of the proceeds of our Credit Facility (as defined below), mortgage notes payable, future stock offerings and other future capital resources, if any.

Forward-looking statements involve inherent uncertainty and may ultimately prove to be incorrect or false. You are cautioned to not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Except as otherwise may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or actual operating results. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to:

 

   

general volatility of the capital markets and the market price of our common and preferred stock;

 

   

failure to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and in the risk of changing laws that affect REITs;

 

   

risks associated with negotiation and consummation of pending and future transactions;

 

   

changes in our business strategy;

 

   

the adequacy of our cash reserves and working capital;

 

   

our failure to successfully integrate and operate acquired properties and operations;

 

   

defaults upon or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

   

decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

 

   

the degree and nature of our competition, including with other real estate investment companies;

 

   

availability, terms and deployment of capital, including the ability to maintain and borrow under our $85.0 million senior unsecured revolving credit facility and our $75.0 million term loan facility (together the “Credit Facility”), arrange for long-term mortgages on our properties, secure additional long-term lines of credit and raise equity capital;

 

   

our Adviser’s ability to identify, hire and retain highly-qualified personnel;

 

   

changes in our industry or the general economy;

 

   

changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates;

 

   

changes in governmental regulations, tax rates and similar matters;

 

   

environmental uncertainties and risks related to natural disasters; and

 

   

the loss of any of our key officers, such as Mr. David Gladstone, our chairman and chief executive officer, Mr. Terry Lee Brubaker, our vice chairman and chief operating officer, or Mr. Robert Cutlip, our president.

This list of risks and uncertainties, however, is only a summary of some of the most important factors to us and is not intended to be exhaustive. You should carefully review the risks and information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, in this prospectus or in any accompanying prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the “Risk Factors” incorporated by reference herein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other reports and information that we file with the SEC from time to time. New factors may also emerge from time to time that could materially and adversely affect us.

 

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THE COMPANY

Unless the context otherwise requires or indicates, each reference in this prospectus to (i) “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” means Gladstone Commercial Corporation, a Maryland corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, (ii) the “Operating Partnership” means Gladstone Commercial Limited Partnership, a wholly-owned, consolidated subsidiary of the Company and a Delaware limited partnership, (iii) the “Adviser” means Gladstone Management Corporation, the external adviser of the Company and a Delaware corporation, and (iv) the “Administrator” means Gladstone Administration, LLC, the external administrator of the Company and a Delaware limited liability company. The term “you” refers to a prospective investor.

We are an externally-advised REIT that was incorporated under the General Corporation Law of the State of Maryland (the “MGCL”) on February 14, 2003. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. We focus on acquiring, owning, and managing primarily office and industrial properties. On a selective basis, we may make long term industrial and commercial mortgage loans; however, we do not have any mortgage loans currently outstanding. Our shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series A Preferred Stock”), 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series B Preferred Stock”), and 7.00% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series D Preferred Stock”), trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbols “GOOD,” “GOODP,” “GOODO” and “GOODM,” respectively. Our senior common stock, par value, $0.001 per share, is not traded on any exchange or automated quotation system.

Our properties are geographically diversified and our tenants cover a broad cross section of business sectors and range in size from small to very large private and public companies, many of which are corporations that do not have publicly-rated debt. We have historically entered into, and intend in the future to enter into, purchase agreements for real estate having triple net leases with terms of approximately 7 to 15 years and built-in rental rate increases. Under a triple net lease, the tenant is required to pay all operating, maintenance and insurance costs and real estate taxes with respect to the leased property. We actively communicate with buyout funds, real estate brokers and other third parties to locate properties for potential acquisition or to provide mortgage financing in an effort to build our portfolio. We target secondary growth markets that possess favorable economic growth trends, diversified industries, and growing population and employment. As of September 30, 2018, we owned 99 properties that contained approximately 11.6 million rentable square feet located in 24 states leased to 95 different tenants in 19 industries, our occupancy rate was 99.1%, and our average remaining lease term was 7.1 years.

Our business is managed by our Adviser, which is an affiliated registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. Our Adviser is responsible for managing our business on a daily basis and for identifying and making acquisitions and dispositions that it believes satisfy our investment criteria.

We conduct substantially all of our activities, including the ownership of all of our properties, through our Operating Partnership. We control our Operating Partnership through our ownership of GCLP Business Trust II, a subsidiary of the Company and a Massachusetts business trust which holds the sole general partnership interest in our Operating Partnership, and of GCLP Business Trust I, a subsidiary of the Company and a Massachusetts business trust which holds all of the limited partnership units of our Operating Partnership. Our Operating Partnership may issue limited partnership units from time to time in exchange for industrial and commercial real property. Limited partners who hold limited partnership units in our Operating Partnership will generally be entitled to redeem these units for cash or, at our election, shares of our common stock on a one-for-one basis.

Our executive offices are located at 1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100, McLean, Virginia 22102, and our telephone number is (703) 287-5800. Our website address is www.GladstoneCommercial.com. However, the information located on, or accessible from, our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus or incorporated into any other filings that we make with the SEC.

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus involves substantial risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference herein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and the other information contained in this prospectus, as updated, amended or superseded by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in any accompanying prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow and might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. Much of the business information, as well as the financial and operational data contained in our risk factors, is updated in our periodic reports filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act, which are also incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Although we have tried to discuss key risk factors, please be aware that these are not the only risks we face and there may be additional risks that we do not presently know of or that we currently consider not likely to have a significant impact. New risks may emerge at any time and we cannot predict such risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our business or our financial performance. Please also refer to the section entitled “Forward-Looking Statements” above.

USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we specify otherwise in an accompanying prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the issuance or sale of our securities to provide additional funds for general corporate purposes, which may include, without limitation, the repayment of outstanding indebtedness, the acquisition of additional properties, capital expenditures and/or improvements to properties in our portfolio, distributions to stockholders and working capital. Any specific allocation of the net proceeds of an offering of securities to a specific purpose will be determined at the time of such offering and will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement to this prospectus.

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of capital stock, $0.001 par value per share, 87,700,000 of which are classified as common stock, 2,600,000 of which are classified as Series A Preferred Stock, 2,750,000 of which are classified as Series B Preferred Stock, 6,000,000 are of which are classified as Series D Preferred Stock and 950,000 of which are classified as senior common stock. Under our charter, our board of directors is authorized to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of capital stock by setting or changing in any one or more respects, from time to time before issuance of such stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of such stock. Our board of directors may also, without stockholder approval, amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class that we have authority to issue.

For purposes of this section “Description of Capital Stock,” we refer to our common stock which is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GOOD” as our “Listed Common Stock” and we refer to our non-listed senior common stock, as our “Senior Common Stock.” We collectively refer to our Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and our Series D Preferred Stock as our “Preferred Stock” where appropriate.

The following summary description of our capital stock is not necessarily complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and bylaws, as amended, each of which has been filed with the SEC, as well as applicable provisions of the MGCL.

 

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Meetings and Special Voting Requirements

An annual meeting of the stockholders will be held each year for the purpose of electing the class of directors whose term is up for election and to conduct other business that may be properly brought before the stockholders. Special meetings of stockholders may be called only upon the request of a majority of our directors, a majority of our independent directors, our chairman, our chief executive officer or our president and must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at a meeting. In general, the presence in person or by proxy of a majority of the outstanding shares, exclusive of excess shares (described in “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” below), shall constitute a quorum. Generally, the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast at a meeting at which a quorum is present is necessary to take stockholder action, except that a plurality of all votes cast at such a meeting is sufficient to elect any director.

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Except for a conversion, our charter provides for approval of these matters by a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Stockholders may, by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors, elect to remove a director for cause. Stockholders do not have the ability to vote to replace our Adviser or to select a new adviser.

Repurchases of Excess Shares

We have the authority to redeem “excess shares” (as defined in our charter) immediately upon becoming aware of the existence of excess shares or after giving the holder of the excess shares 30 days to transfer the excess shares to a person whose ownership of such shares would not exceed the ownership limit, and therefore such shares would no longer be considered excess shares. The price paid upon redemption by us shall be the lesser of the price paid for such excess shares by the stockholder holding the excess shares or the fair market value of the excess shares, see “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Common Stock

Certificates

Generally, we will not issue stock certificates. Shares of common stock will be held in “uncertificated” form, which will eliminate the physical handling and safekeeping responsibilities inherent in owning transferable stock certificates and eliminate the need to return a duly executed stock certificate to the transfer agent to effect a transfer. Transfers can be effected simply by mailing to us a duly executed transfer form. Upon the issuance of shares of common stock, we will send to each stockholder a written statement which will include all information that is required to be written upon stock certificates pursuant to the MGCL.

Other Matters

The transfer and distribution paying agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare, Inc.

Listed Common Stock

Voting Rights

Each share of Listed Common Stock is entitled to one vote on each matter to be voted upon by our stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series

 

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of capital stock, the holders of the Listed Common Stock possess exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding Listed Common Stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election and that the holders of the remaining shares are not able to elect any directors.

Dividends, Liquidations and Other Rights

Holders of Listed Common Stock are entitled to receive distributions, when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, out of assets legally available for the payment of distributions. We pay distributions on the Listed Common Stock on a monthly basis. They also are entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment of or adequate provision for all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our shares, including the Senior Common Stock and our Preferred Stock, and the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on transfer and ownership of shares of our capital stock.

Holders of our Listed Common Stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities. Subject to the restrictions on transfer and ownership of shares of our capital stock contained in our charter, all shares of Listed Common Stock have equal distribution, liquidation and other rights.

Senior Common Stock

Voting Rights

Holders of our Senior Common Stock have no voting rights, except as set forth below or as otherwise from time to time required by law. So long as any shares of Senior Common Stock remain outstanding, we will not, without the affirmative vote or consent of the holders of at least a majority of the shares of the Senior Common Stock outstanding at the time, given in person or by proxy, either in writing or at a meeting (voting separately by class), amend, alter or repeal the provisions of our charter, whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, so as to materially and adversely affect any right, preference, privilege or voting power of the Senior Common Stock or the holders thereof.

Dividends, Liquidations and Other Rights

The Senior Common Stock has priority over the Listed Common Stock with respect to payment of distributions and is pari passu with the Listed Common Stock with respect to distribution of amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up; however, the Senior Common Stock ranks junior to our Preferred Stock with respect to payment of distributions and distribution of amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up. The Senior Common Stock will be entitled to receive, subject to the preferential rights of our Preferred Stock (and any other preferred stock that we may issue in the future), when and as authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, out of funds legally available for payment of distributions, cash distributions in an amount equal to $1.05 per share per annum, declared daily and paid at the rate of $0.0875 per share per month. Distributions are cumulative from the date of issue of the shares and are payable monthly on or about the 5th business day of the month following the month in which such distributions are earned.

Exchange Option

Holders of Senior Common Stock have the right, but not the obligation, after the 5th anniversary of the issuance of the shares of Senior Common Stock proposed to be exchanged, to exchange any or all of such shares of Senior Common Stock for our Listed Common Stock at a predetermined exchange ratio (the “Exchange Ratio”). The Exchange Ratio will be calculated by dividing $15.00 by the greatest of (i) the Closing Trading

 

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Price of the Listed Common Stock on the date on which such shares of Senior Common Stock were originally issued, (ii) the Book Value Per Share of the Listed Common Stock as determined as of the date on which such shares of Senior Common Stock were originally issued, and (iii) $13.68. For this purpose, “Book Value Per Share” means, as of a given date, the common stockholders’ equity (as reflected in our most recent public filing with the SEC) divided by the number of outstanding shares of common stock as of the same date. “Closing Trading Price” means, on any date of determination, (i) the most recently reported closing price per share of the Listed Common Stock as of such date on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or (ii) if, as of such date, the Listed Common Stock is not traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the most recently reported closing price per share of the Listed Common Stock on the primary stock exchange on which the Listed Common Stock is then listed for trading, or (iii) if, as of such date, the Listed Common Stock is not listed for trading on any stock exchange, the closing bid price for the Listed Common Stock on the Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board, or (iv) if neither (i), (ii) or (iii) apply, the last reported bid price on the over-the-counter market or on the Pink Sheets, or (v) if there is no longer any public market for the Listed Common Stock as of such date, the fair market value of a share of Listed Common Stock as determined in good faith by our board of directors.

Solely for purposes of determining when shares of Senior Common Stock become exchangeable, shares of Senior Common Stock purchased by a holder on dates subsequent to such holder’s initial purchase of Senior Common Stock (excluding shares issued pursuant to such holder’s participation in a distribution reinvestment plan of the Company, if any) will be deemed to have been issued on their respective issuance dates and, accordingly, the 5-year holding periods for such shares will commence from their respective issuance dates. In addition, any shares issued pursuant to a distribution reinvestment plan of the Company, if any, will be deemed to have been issued, and the five-year holding periods for such shares will be deemed to commence, on the date of issuance of the shares of Senior Common Stock purchased by the holder to which the shares issued pursuant to such Company’s distribution reinvestment plan relate.

All accumulated and unpaid distributions on the Senior Common Stock shall be paid to the holder through the date of exchange.

Automatic Conversion

Each share of Senior Common Stock will be converted into Listed Common Stock in accordance with the Exchange Ratio automatically upon any of the following events:

 

   

an acquisition of the Company by another company by means of any transaction or series of related transactions to which we are a party (including, without limitation, any stock acquisition, reorganization, merger or consolidation, but excluding any sale of stock for capital raising purposes) other than a transaction or series of transactions in which the holders of our voting securities outstanding immediately prior to such transaction continue to retain at least 50% of the total voting power represented by our voting securities or those of such other surviving entity outstanding immediately after such transaction or series of transactions;

 

   

a sale of all or substantially all of our assets; or

 

   

a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company.

All accumulated and unpaid distributions on the Senior Common Stock shall be paid to the holder through the date of conversion.

Call Option

Shares of Senior Common Stock are callable for cash at our option, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equivalent to $15.30 per share, plus accumulated and unpaid distributions thereon to the date fixed for redemption.

 

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Anti-Dilution

If the outstanding Listed Common Stock is increased or decreased or changed into or exchanged for a different number or kind of shares or other securities of the Company or of any other company by reason of any reclassification, recapitalization, share split up, combination of shares, or share distribution, appropriate adjustment will be made to the number of shares and relative terms of the Senior Common Stock. There will be no anti-dilution adjustment upon the future sale of additional shares of Listed Common Stock, regardless of the price at which the Senior Common Stock is sold.

Valuation

Beginning with the quarter ended September 30, 2014, we have determined the value of the Senior Common Stock on a quarterly basis. This value will be determined as of the last day of each quarter and will be posted to our website at www.GladstoneCommercial.info. The information located on, or accessible from, our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or incorporated into any other filings that we make with the SEC.

Preferred Stock

General

Subject to limitations prescribed by the MGCL and our charter, our board of directors is authorized to issue, from the authorized but unissued shares of stock, shares of preferred stock in class or series and to establish from time to time the number of shares of preferred stock to be included in the class or series and to fix the designation and any preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of the shares of each class or series. Our board may also increase the number of shares in any existing class or series.

Existing Series of Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has classified:

 

   

2,600,000 shares of 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock;

 

   

2,750,000 shares of 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock; and

 

   

6,000,000 shares of 7.00% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock.

Series A Preferred Stock

Voting Rights

Holders of Series A Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights. However, if dividends on any shares of the Series A Preferred Stock are in arrears for 18 or more consecutive months, holders of the Series A Preferred Stock (voting together as a single class with holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock equal in rank with the Series A Preferred Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) will have the right to elect two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until all dividends for the past dividend periods and the then current dividend period are fully paid or declared and set aside for payment. In addition, we may not amend the charter, including the designations, rights, preferences, privileges or limitations in respect of the Series A Preferred Stock, whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, in a manner that would materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the Series A Preferred Stock or the holders thereof without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock then outstanding.

 

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Dividends, Liquidation Preference and Other Rights

Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, preferential cumulative cash dividends at a rate of 7.75% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $1.9375 per annum per share). Beginning on the date of issuance, dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are payable monthly in arrears and are cumulative.

If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, holders of the Series A Preferred Stock will have the right to receive the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, plus any accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends to and including the date of payment, but without interest, before any payment is made to the holders of our common stock (including our Listed Common Stock and Senior Common Stock) or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the Series A Preferred Stock as to liquidation rights.

With respect to the payment of dividends and amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the Series A Preferred Stock will be equal in rank with our Series B Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock and all equity securities that we issue, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the Series A Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up; senior to our common stock (including our Listed Common Stock and Senior Common Stock); and junior to all our existing and future indebtedness.

Effective January 30, 2011, we have the ability, at our sole option, to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, by payment of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends to the date of redemption. We have not redeemed any of the Series A Preferred Stock as of the date of this prospectus.

Shares of Series A Preferred Stock are not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.

Series B Preferred Stock

Voting Rights

Holders of Series B Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights. However, if dividends on any shares of the Series B Preferred Stock are in arrears for 18 or more consecutive months, holders of the Series B Preferred Stock (voting together as a single class with holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock equal in rank with the Series B Preferred Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) will have the right to elect two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until all dividends for the past dividend periods and the then current dividend period are fully paid or declared and set aside for payment. In addition, we may not amend the charter, including the designations, rights, preferences, privileges or limitations in respect of the Series B Preferred Stock, whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, in a manner that would materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the Series B Preferred Stock or the holders thereof without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of Series B Preferred Stock then outstanding.

Dividends, Liquidation Preference and Other Rights

Holders of Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, preferential cumulative cash dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock at a rate of 7.50% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $1.875 per annum per share). Beginning on the date of issuance, dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock are payable monthly in arrears and are cumulative.

If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, holders of the Series B Preferred Stock will have the right to receive the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, plus any accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends to and including the

 

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date of payment, but without interest, before any payment is made to the holders of our common stock (including our Listed Common Stock and Senior Common Stock) or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the Series B Preferred Stock as to liquidation rights.

With respect to the payment of dividends and amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the Series B Preferred Stock will be equal in rank with our Series A Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock and all other equity securities we issue, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the Series B Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up; senior to our common stock (including our Listed Common Stock and Senior Common Stock); and junior to all our existing and future indebtedness.

Effective October 31, 2011, we have the ability, at our sole option, to redeem the Series B Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, by payment of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends to the date of redemption. We have not redeemed any of the Series B Preferred Stock as of the date of this prospectus.

Shares of Series B Preferred Stock are not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.

Series D Preferred Stock

Voting Rights

Holders of Series D Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights. However, if dividends on any shares of the Series D Preferred Stock are in arrears for 18 or more consecutive months, holders of the Series D Preferred Stock (voting together as a single class with holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock equal in rank with the Series D Preferred Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) will have the right to elect two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until all dividends for the past dividend periods and the then current dividend period are fully paid or declared and set apart for payment. In addition, we may not amend the charter, including the designations, rights, preferences, privileges or limitations in respect of the Series D Preferred Stock, whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, in a manner that would materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the Series D Preferred Stock or the holders thereof without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of Series D Preferred Stock then outstanding.

Dividends, Liquidation Preference and Other Rights

Holders of Series D Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, preferential cumulative cash dividends on the Series D Preferred Stock at a rate of 7.00% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $1.75 per annum per share). Beginning on the date of issuance, dividends on the Series D Preferred Stock are payable monthly in arrears and are cumulative.

If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, holders of the Series D Preferred Stock will have the right to receive the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to and including the date of payment, but without interest, before any payment is made to the holders of our common stock (including our Listed Common Stock and Senior Common Stock) or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the Series D Preferred Stock as to liquidation rights.

With respect to the payment of dividends and amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the Series D Preferred Stock will be equal in rank with our Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and all other equity securities we issue, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a

 

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parity with the Series D Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up; senior to our common stock (including our Listed Common Stock and Senior Common Stock); and junior to all our existing and future indebtedness.

Generally, we are not permitted to redeem the Series D Preferred Stock prior to May 25, 2021, except in limited circumstances relating to our ability to qualify as a REIT and pursuant to the special optional redemption provision described below. On and after May 25, 2021, we may, at our option, redeem the Series D Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but not including, the date fixed for redemption, without interest, to the extent we have funds legally available for that purpose.

In addition, upon the occurrence of a change of control, as a result of which neither our common stock nor the common securities of the acquiring or surviving entity (or American Depositary Receipts representing such securities) is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the NYSE MKT LLC or Nasdaq, or listed or quoted on a successor exchange or quotation system, we may, at our option, redeem the Series D Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, within 120 days after the first date on which such change of control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption. Should a change of control occur, each holder of Series D Preferred Stock may, at its sole option, elect to cause us to redeem any or all of such holder’s shares of Series D Preferred Stock in cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all accrued but unpaid dividends, to, but not including, the redemption date, no earlier than 30 days and no later than 60 days following the date we notify holders of the change of control.

Shares of Series D Preferred Stock are not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property. The Series D Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and is not subject to mandatory redemption or any sinking fund.

Future Classes or Series of Preferred Stock

The following description of the terms of our preferred stock sets forth general terms and provisions of our preferred stock to which an accompanying prospectus supplement may relate. Specific terms of any class or series of preferred stock offered by an accompanying prospectus supplement will be described in that prospectus supplement. The description set forth below is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the articles supplementary to our charter fixing the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of a particular class or series of preferred stock.

If we offer preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus, an accompanying prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the class or series of shares of preferred stock being offered, including, but not limited to:

 

   

the title and stated value of the class or series of shares of preferred stock and the number of shares constituting that class or series;

 

   

the number of shares of the class or series of shares of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the shares of preferred stock;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or the method(s) of calculation for those values relating to the shares of preferred stock of the class or series;

 

   

the date from which dividends on shares of preferred stock of the class or series shall cumulate, if applicable;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for shares of preferred stock of the class or series;

 

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the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for shares of preferred stock of the class or series;

 

   

the provision for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, of shares of preferred stock of the class or series, and any restriction on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the class or series of shares of preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares of preferred stock of the class or series will be convertible into shares of preferred stock of another class or series or common stock, including the conversion price, or manner of calculating the conversion price, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights, if any, of the shares of preferred stock of the class or series;

 

   

preemption rights, if any;

 

   

whether interests in shares of preferred stock of the class or series will be represented by global securities;

 

   

a discussion of federal income tax considerations applicable to shares of preferred stock of the class or series to the extent not discussed in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations;”

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of shares of preferred stock of the class or series as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

to the extent not otherwise addressed in this prospectus, any limitations on issuance of any class or series of shares of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the class or series of shares of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer of shares of preferred stock of the class or series, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), among other purposes;

 

   

the registrar and transfer agent for the shares of preferred stock; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the class or series of shares of preferred stock.

If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, conversion or other rights of holders of common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

Restrictions on ownership and transfer of our common stock and Preferred Stock are designed to preserve our status as a REIT, among other purposes, and, therefore, may act to prevent or hinder a change of control. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter And Bylaws — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” below.

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities under one or more trust indentures to be executed by us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made a part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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The following description sets forth certain anticipated general terms and provisions of the debt securities to which an accompanying prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the debt securities offered by an accompanying prospectus supplement (which terms may be different than those stated below) and the extent, if any, to which such general provisions may apply to the debt securities so offered will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of a particular issue of debt securities, investors should review both the accompanying prospectus supplement relating thereto and the following description. A form of the indenture (as discussed herein) has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The debt securities will be our direct obligations and may be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. The indebtedness represented by subordinated securities will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of our senior debt (as defined in the applicable indenture).

Except as set forth in the applicable indenture and described in an accompanying prospectus supplement relating thereto, the debt securities may be issued without limit as to aggregate principal amount, in one or more series, secured or unsecured, in each case as established from time to time in or pursuant to authority granted by a resolution of the board of directors or as established in the applicable indenture. All debt securities of one series need not be issued at the same time and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series, for issuance of additional debt securities of such series.

The accompanying prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities being offered will contain their specific terms, including, without limitation:

 

   

their title and whether they are senior securities or subordinated securities;

 

   

their initial aggregate principal amount and any limit on their aggregate principal amount;

 

   

the percentage of the principal amount at which they will be issued and, if other than 100% of the principal amount, the portion of the principal amount payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity;

 

   

the terms, if any, upon which they may be convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock and the terms and conditions upon which a conversion will be effected, including the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period;

 

   

if convertible, the portion of the principal amount that is convertible into common stock or preferred stock, or the method by which any portion will be determined;

 

   

if convertible, any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of the common stock or preferred stock into which they are convertible;

 

   

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal will be payable;

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable), or the method for determining the rate or rates, at which they will bear interest, if any;

 

   

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which any interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which any interest will be payable, the regular record dates for the interest payment dates, or the method by which the date will be determined, the person to whom the interest will be payable, and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

   

the place or places where the principal (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, will be payable, where they may be surrendered for conversion or registration of transfer or exchange and where notices or demands to or upon us may be served;

 

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the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which they may be redeemed, as a whole or in part, at our option, if we are to have the option;

 

   

our obligation, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase them pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of a holder, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which they will be redeemed, repaid or purchased, as a whole or in part, pursuant to this obligation;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies in which they are denominated and payable, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies, and the related terms and conditions;

 

   

whether the payments of principal (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may, but need not be, based upon a currency, currencies, currency unit or units or composite currencies) and the manner in which the amounts will be determined;

 

   

any additions to, modifications of or deletions from their terms with respect to the events of default or covenants set forth in the indenture;

 

   

any provisions for collateral security for their repayment;

 

   

whether they will be issued in certificated or book-entry form;

 

   

whether they will be in registered or bearer form and, if in registered form, the denominations if other than $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof and, if in bearer form, the denominations and related terms and conditions;

 

   

the applicability, if any, of defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions of the applicable indenture;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts as contemplated in the applicable indenture in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem them in lieu of making the payment; and

 

   

any other terms and any deletions from or modifications or additions to the applicable indenture.

The debt securities may provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof. Special federal income tax, accounting and other considerations applicable to debt securities will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement.

The applicable indenture may contain provisions that would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or that would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us or in the event of a change of control.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale

The applicable indenture will provide that we may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or merge with or into, any other corporation, provided that:

 

   

we are the continuing corporation, or the successor corporation (if other than the Company) formed by or resulting from any consolidation or merger or which has received the transfer of our assets will be organized and existing under U.S. or state law and expressly assumes payment of the principal of (and premium, if any), and interest on, all of the applicable debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions contained in the applicable indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction and treating any indebtedness which becomes our obligation or the obligation of any subsidiary as a result thereof as having been incurred by us or such

 

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subsidiary at the time of the transaction, no event of default under the applicable indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an event of default, will have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

an officer’s certificate and legal opinion covering these conditions will be delivered to the trustee.

Covenants

The applicable indenture will contain covenants requiring us to take certain actions and prohibiting us from taking certain actions. The covenants with respect to any series of debt securities will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

Each indenture will describe specific “events of default” with respect to a series of debt securities issued under the indenture. These “events of default” are likely to include (with grace and cure periods):

 

   

our failure to pay any installment of interest;

 

   

our failure to pay their principal (or premium, if any) at their maturity;

 

   

our failure to make any required sinking fund payment;

 

   

our breach of any other covenant or warranty contained in the applicable indenture (other than a covenant added to the indenture solely for the benefit of a different series of debt securities); and

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us or any substantial part of our property.

If an event of default under any indenture with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the applicable trustee or the holders of not less than 25% of the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately by written notice thereof to us (and to the applicable trustee if given by the holders). However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under any indenture, as the case may be) has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be) may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

   

we shall have deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be), plus certain fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the applicable trustee; and

 

   

all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal (or specified portion thereof), with respect to debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be) have been cured or waived as provided in such indenture.

Each indenture also will provide that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be) may waive any past default with respect to the series and its consequences, except a:

 

   

payment default; or

 

   

covenant default that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security affected thereby.

 

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Each trustee will be required to give notice to the holders of debt securities within a certain number of days of a default under the applicable indenture unless the default has been cured or waived; provided, however, that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any series of debt securities of any default with respect to the series (except a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt security of the series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of the series) if specified responsible officers of the trustee consider withholding the notice to be in the interest of the holders.

Each indenture will prohibit the holders of debt securities of any series from instituting any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for any remedy thereunder, except in the case of failure of the applicable trustee, for a certain period of time after the trustee has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as the furnishing of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it. This provision will not prevent any holder of debt securities from instituting a suit to enforce the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.

Subject to the indenture, no trustee will be under any obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under an indenture at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding, unless the holders furnish the trustee thereunder reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture, as the case may be) will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which is in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture, which may involve the trustee in personal liability or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of such series not joining therein.

Within a certain period of time of the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee, a certificate, signed by one of several specified officers, stating whether or not the officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture and, if so, specifying each default and the nature and status thereof.

Investors should review the accompanying prospectus supplement for information with respect to any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or covenants that are described herein, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

Modification of the Indenture

The indenture will likely be modified or amended, with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of each series of the outstanding debt securities issued under the indenture affected by the modification or amendment, provided that no modification or amendment may, without the consent of each affected holder of the debt securities:

 

   

change the stated maturity date of the principal of (or premium, if any) or any installment of interest, if any, on the debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of (or premium, if any) or the interest, if any, on the debt securities or the principal amount due upon acceleration of an original issue discount security;

 

   

change the place or currency of payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the debt securities;

 

   

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

reduce the above-stated percentage of holders of the debt securities necessary to modify or amend the indenture; or

 

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modify the foregoing requirements or reduce the percentage of the outstanding debt securities necessary to waive compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or for waiver of certain defaults.

A record date may be set for any act of the holders with respect to consenting to any amendment.

The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected thereby will have the right to waive our compliance with certain covenants in the indenture. Each indenture will contain provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series to take permitted action. Under certain circumstances, we and the trustee may make modifications and amendments to an indenture without the consent of any holders of outstanding debt securities.

Redemption of Debt Securities

The debt securities may be redeemed at any time at our option, in whole or in part, to protect our status as a REIT. The debt securities will also be subject to optional or mandatory redemption on terms and conditions described in the accompanying prospectus supplement.

Conversion of Debt Securities

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any debt securities are convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. The terms will include:

 

   

whether the debt securities are convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

the conversion price (or the manner of calculating the price);

 

   

the conversion period;

 

   

the events requiring an adjustment to the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion if the debt securities are redeemed; and

 

   

any restrictions on conversion.

Subordination

Upon any distribution to our creditors in a liquidation, dissolution or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on any subordinated securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the applicable indenture to the prior payment in full of all senior securities. No payment of principal or interest will be permitted to be made on subordinated securities at any time if any payment default or any other default which permits accelerations exists. After all senior securities are paid in full and until the subordinated securities are paid in full, holders of subordinated securities will be subrogated to the right of holders of senior securities to the extent that distributions otherwise payable to holders of subordinated securities have been applied to the payment of senior securities. By reason of any subordination, in the event of a distribution of assets upon our insolvency, some of our general creditors may recover more, ratably, than holders of subordinated securities. The accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated herein by reference will contain the approximate amount of senior securities outstanding as of the end of our most recent fiscal quarter.

Global Debt Securities

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in global form. The global securities will be deposited with a depositary, or with a nominee for a depositary, identified in the accompanying prospectus supplement. In this case, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate

 

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denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of the series to be represented by the global security or securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities in definitive form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for the global security to a nominee of the depositary or by a nominee of the depositary to the depositary or another nominee of the depositary or by the depositary or any nominee to a successor of the depositary or a nominee of the successor.

The specific material terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary for the global security will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the respective principal amounts of the debt securities represented by the global security to the accounts of persons, or participants, that have accounts with the depositary. The accounts to be credited will be designated by any underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the debt securities. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to participants or persons that may hold interests through participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary for the global security, with respect to interests of participants, or by participants or persons that hold through participants, with respect to interests of persons other than participants. So long as the depositary for a global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of the global security, the depositary or the nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the indenture; provided, however, that for purposes of obtaining any consents or directions required to be given by the holders of the debt securities, we, the trustee and our agents will treat a person as the holder of the principal amount of debt securities as specified in a written statement of the depositary. Except as set forth herein or otherwise provided in the accompanying prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the debt securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of the debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the indenture.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. Neither we, the trustee nor any paying agent for the debt securities, will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to the beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any debt securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest will immediately credit participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of the global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers registered in “street names” and will be the responsibility of the participants.

If the depositary for any debt securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary and a successor depositary is not appointed by us within the period of time set forth in the indenture, we will issue the debt securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security. In addition, we may at any time, and in our sole discretion, determine not to have any of the debt securities of a series represented by one or more global securities and, in that event, will issue debt securities of the series in definitive form in exchange for all of the global security or securities representing the debt securities.

 

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The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of the securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in debt securities represented by global securities.

Governing Law

The indenture for the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

General

We may issue depositary shares, each of which will represent a fractional interest of a share of a particular class or series of our preferred stock, as specified in the accompanying prospectus supplement which will more fully describe the terms of those depositary shares. Shares of a class or series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a separate deposit agreement among us, the depositary named therein and the holders from time to time of the depositary receipts issued by the preferred stock depositary which will evidence the depositary shares. Subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary receipt will be entitled, in proportion to the fractional interest of a share of a particular class or series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares evidenced by that depositary receipt, to all the rights and preferences of the class or series of preferred stock represented by those depositary shares (including dividend, voting, conversion, redemption and liquidation rights).

The depositary shares to be issued will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the applicable deposit agreement. Immediately following the issuance and delivery of a class or series of preferred stock by us to the preferred stock depositary, we will cause the preferred stock depositary to issue, on our behalf, the depositary receipts. The following description of the depositary shares, and any description of the depositary shares in an accompanying prospectus supplement, may not be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the underlying deposit agreement and the depositary receipt, which we will file with the SEC at or prior to the time of the sale of the depositary shares. You should refer to, and read this summary together with, the deposit agreement and related depositary receipt. You can obtain copies of any form of deposit agreement or other agreement pursuant to which the depositary shares are issued by following the directions described under the caption “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus supplement.

Dividends and Other Distributions

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of our preferred stock to the record holders of depositary shares relating to such preferred stock in proportion to the number of such depositary shares owned by such holders. The depositary shall distribute only such amount, however, as can be distributed without attributing to any holder of depositary shares a fraction of one cent, and the balance not so distributed shall be added to and treated as part of the next sum received by the depositary for distribution to record holders of depositary shares.

In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary shares entitled thereto, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the depositary may, with our approval, sell such property and distribute the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.

The deposit agreement will also contain provisions relating to the manner in which any subscription or similar rights offered by us to holders of our preferred stock shall be made available to the holders of depositary shares.

 

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Redemption of Depositary Shares

If a class or series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares is subject to redemption, the depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of such class or series of preferred stock held by the depositary. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the applicable fraction of the redemption price per share payable with respect to such class or series of preferred stock. Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the shares of preferred stock so redeemed. If fewer than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata as may be determined by the depositary.

After the date fixed for redemption, the depositary shares so called for redemption will no longer be outstanding and all rights of the holders of the depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the money, securities or other property payable upon such redemption and any money, securities or other property to which the holders of such depositary shares were entitled upon such redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing such depositary shares.

Voting Our Preferred Stock

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to such preferred stock. Each record holder of such depositary shares on the record date (which will be the same date as the record date for our preferred stock) will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the amount of preferred stock represented by such holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the amount of preferred stock represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary may abstain from voting shares of preferred stock to the extent it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing such preferred stock.

Amendment and Termination of the Depositary Agreement

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time be amended by agreement between the depositary and us. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by the holders of at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. The deposit agreement may be terminated by us or the depositary only if (i) all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed or (ii) there has been a final distribution in respect of our preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company and such distribution has been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts.

Charges of Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of our preferred stock and any redemption of our preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay other transfer and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges, including a fee for the withdrawal of shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts, as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts.

Miscellaneous

The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all reports and communications from the Company that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to holders of preferred stock.

 

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Neither the depositary nor the Company will be liable if it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of the depositary and the Company under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties thereunder and they will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. They may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, or upon information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent and on documents believed to be genuine.

Resignation and Removal of the Depositary

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal.

Restrictions on Ownership

The deposit agreement will contain provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of depositary shares. Such restrictions will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement and will be referenced on the applicable depositary receipts.

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

We may issue subscription rights to purchase one or more series or classes of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and depositary shares. We may issue subscription rights independently or together with any other offered security, which may or may not be transferable by the stockholder. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

The accompanying prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we may offer will contain the specific terms of the subscription rights. These terms may include the following:

 

   

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

   

the exercise price payable for common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or depositary shares upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of subscription rights issued to each security holder;

 

   

the number and terms of the common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or depositary shares which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the subscription rights or the exercise price of the subscription rights;

 

   

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

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the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

 

   

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

The description in the accompanying prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate or subscription rights agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. For more information on how you can obtain copies of any subscription rights certificate or subscription rights agreement if we offer subscription rights, see “Where You Can Find More Information.” We urge you to read the applicable subscription rights certificate, the applicable subscription rights agreement and any accompanying prospectus supplement in their entirety.

BOOK ENTRY PROCEDURES AND SETTLEMENT

We may issue the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus in certificated or book-entry form or in the form of one or more global securities. The accompanying prospectus supplement will describe the manner in which the securities offered thereby will be issued.

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

Classification of our Board of Directors

Our board of directors is currently comprised of eight members. Our board is divided into three classes of directors. Directors of each class are elected for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following their election and until their respective successor is duly elected and qualifies, and each year one class of directors will be elected by the stockholders. Any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the class in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies. We believe that classification of our board of directors helps to assure the continuity and stability of our business strategies and policies as determined by our directors. Holders of shares of our capital stock have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the capital stock entitled to vote are able to elect all of the successors of the class of directors whose terms expire at that meeting.

Our classified board could have the effect of making the replacement of incumbent directors more time consuming and difficult. At least two annual meetings of stockholders, instead of one, will generally be required to effect a change in a majority of our board of directors. Thus, our classified board could increase the likelihood that incumbent directors will retain their positions. The classified terms of directors may delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or an attempt to change control of us or another transaction that might involve a premium price for our common stock that might be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Removal of Directors

Any director may be removed only for cause by the stockholders upon the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT, not more than 50% (by value) of our outstanding shares may be owned by any five or fewer individuals (including some tax-exempt entities) during the last half of each taxable year,

 

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and the outstanding shares must be owned by 100 or more persons independent of us and each other during at least 335 days of a 12-month taxable year or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year for which an election to be treated as a REIT is made. We may prohibit certain acquisitions and transfers of shares to maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Code. However, no assurance can be given that this prohibition will be effective.

In order to assist our board of directors in preserving our status as a REIT, among other purposes, our charter contains an ownership limit which prohibits any person or group of persons from acquiring, directly or indirectly, beneficial or constructive ownership of more than 9.8% of our outstanding shares of capital stock (which includes our common stock and preferred stock). Shares owned by a person or a group of persons in excess of the ownership limit are deemed “excess shares.” Shares owned by a person who individually owns of record less than 9.8% of outstanding shares may nevertheless be excess shares if the person is deemed part of a group for purposes of this restriction.

Our charter stipulates that any purported issuance or transfer of shares shall be valid only with respect to those shares that do not result in the transferee-stockholder owning shares in excess of the ownership limit or in our disqualification as a REIT under the Code. If the transferee-stockholder acquires excess shares, the person is considered to have acted as our agent and holds the excess shares on behalf of the ultimate stockholder.

The ownership limit does not apply to offerors which, in accordance with applicable federal and state securities laws, make a cash tender offer, where at least 90% of the outstanding shares of our stock (not including shares or subsequently issued securities convertible into common stock which are held by the tender offeror and any “affiliates” or “associates” thereof within the meaning of the Exchange Act) are duly tendered and accepted pursuant to the cash tender offer. The ownership limit also does not apply to the underwriter in a public offering of our shares. The ownership limit also does not apply to a person or persons which our directors exempt from the ownership limit upon appropriate assurances that our qualification as a REIT is not jeopardized.

We have the authority to (a) redeem excess shares upon becoming aware of the existence of excess shares after giving the holder of the excess shares written notice of the redemption not less than one week prior to the redemption date, or (b) grant the holder 30 days to transfer the excess shares to any person or group of persons whose ownership of such shares would not exceed the ownership limit, and therefore such shares would no longer be considered excess shares. The price paid upon redemption by us shall be the lesser of the price paid for such excess shares by the stockholder holding the excess shares or the fair market value of the excess shares.

Distributions

Distributions will be paid to investors who are stockholders as of the close of business on the applicable record date selected by our board of directors. We are required to make distributions to our stockholders sufficient to satisfy the REIT requirements. If we satisfy the REIT requirements, we generally will not be subject to federal corporate income tax on any income that we distribute to our stockholders.

Unless otherwise specified in the governing instrument of the capital stock, distributions will be paid at the discretion of our board of directors based upon our earnings, cash flow, general financial condition and applicable law. Because we may receive income from interest or rents at various times during our fiscal year, distributions may not reflect our income earned in that particular distribution period but may be made in anticipation of cash flow, which we expect to receive during a later period of the year and may be made in advance of actual receipt in an attempt to make distributions relatively uniform. We may borrow to make distributions if the borrowing is necessary to maintain our REIT status, or if the borrowing is part of a liquidation strategy whereby the borrowing is done in anticipation of the sale of properties and the proceeds will be used to repay the loan.

 

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Information Rights

Any stockholder, or his or her agent, upon written request, may, during usual business hours and for any lawful and proper purpose, inspect and copy our bylaws, minutes of the proceedings of our stockholders, our annual financial statements and any voting trust agreement that is on file at our principal office. In addition, one or more stockholders who together are, and for at least six months have been, record holders of 5% of any class of our stock are entitled to inspect and copy our stockholder list and books of account upon written request. The list will include the name and address of, and the number of shares owned by, each stockholder and will be available at our principal office within 20 days of the stockholder’s request. A 5% stockholder may also request in writing a statement of our affairs.

The rights of stockholders described herein are in addition to, and do not adversely affect rights provided to investors under, Rule 14a-7 promulgated under the Exchange Act, which provides that, upon request of investors and the payment of the expenses of the distribution, we are required to distribute specific materials to stockholders in the context of the solicitation of proxies for voting on matters presented to stockholders, or, at our option, provide requesting stockholders with a copy of the list of stockholders so that the requesting stockholders may make the distribution themselves.

Business Combinations

The MGCL prohibits “business combinations” between a corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, certain transfers of assets, certain stock issuances and transfers, liquidation plans and reclassifications involving interested stockholders and their affiliates. The MGCL defines an interested stockholder as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding stock of the corporation.

A person is not an interested stockholder if the board of directors approves in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving the transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board of directors.

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the then outstanding shares of voting stock; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the voting stock other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or shares held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are approved by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.

 

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Our board of directors has by resolution exempted any business combination between the corporation and our officers and directors from these provisions of the MGCL and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the super-majority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any of our officers and directors unless our board later resolves otherwise.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

 

   

a classified board of directors;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling by stockholders of a special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected to be subject to each of the above provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter generally may be amended only if the amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board, and without any action by our stockholders, may also amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series we are authorized to issue.

Each of our board of directors and stockholders has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws.

Extraordinary Transactions

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, merge, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a statutory share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. As permitted by the MGCL, except for a conversion, our charter provides that any of these actions may be approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Operations

We generally are prohibited from engaging in certain activities, including acquiring or holding property or engaging in any activity that would cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Term and Termination

Our charter provides for us to have a perpetual existence. Pursuant to our charter, and subject to the provisions of any of our classes or series of stock then outstanding and upon the approval by a majority of the entire board of directors, our stockholders by the affirmative vote of a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, may approve a plan of liquidation and dissolution.

 

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Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of persons for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:

 

   

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the time of the provision of notice, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders and nominations of persons for election to our board of directors at which directors are to be elected pursuant to our notice of the meeting may be made only:

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the time of the provision of notice, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

Power to Issue Additional Shares

We currently do not intend to issue any securities other than the shares described in this prospectus, although we may do so at any time, including upon the redemption of limited partnership interests that we may issue in connection with acquisitions of real property. We believe that the power to issue additional shares of stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of shares that could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interest.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that a holder of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” has no voting rights with respect to such shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of shares of stock of the corporation in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (ii) an officer of the corporation or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (i) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (iii) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel our board of directors to call a special

 

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meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer, any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

We have not opted out of the control share acquisition statute.

Possible Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

The business combination provisions and the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL, the classification of our board of directors, the restrictions on the transfer and ownership of stock and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interests.

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

This section summarizes the current material federal income tax consequences generally resulting from our election to be taxed as a REIT and the current material federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of our common stock and preferred stock. As used in this section, the terms “we” and “our” refer solely to Gladstone Commercial Corporation and not to our subsidiaries and affiliates.

This discussion is not exhaustive of all possible tax considerations and does not provide a detailed discussion of any state, local or foreign tax considerations. This discussion does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular investors in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to certain types of investors that are subject to special treatment under the federal income tax laws, such as insurance companies, tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed below under “— Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders”), financial institutions or broker-dealers, non-U.S. individuals and foreign corporations (except to the limited extent discussed below under “— Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders”) and other persons subject to special tax rules. Moreover, this summary assumes that our stockholders hold our stock as a capital asset for federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment. The statements in this section are based on the current federal income tax laws, including the Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, or the Treasury Regulations, rulings and other administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect, and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. This discussion is for general purposes only and is not tax advice. We cannot assure you that new laws, interpretations of law, or court decisions, any of which may take effect retroactively, will not cause any statement in this section to be inaccurate.

 

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As discussed below in “— Taxation in Connection with Holding Securities other than our Stock,” we intend to describe in any prospectus supplement related to the offering of our debt securities, depositary shares or subscription rights, the material federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of such securities as will be sold by us pursuant to that prospectus supplement.

We urge you to consult your own tax advisor regarding the specific tax consequences to you of acquisition, ownership and disposition of our securities and of our election to be taxed as a REIT. Specifically, you should consult your own tax advisor regarding the federal, state, local, foreign, and other tax consequences of such acquisition, ownership, disposition and election, and regarding potential changes in applicable tax laws.

Taxation of Our Company

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the federal income tax laws beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2003. We believe that, beginning with such taxable year, we have been organized and have operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner. No assurances can be given that our beliefs or expectations will be fulfilled, however, since qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to satisfy numerous asset, income, stock ownership and distribution tests described below, the satisfaction of which depends, in part, on our operating results.

The sections of the Code relating to qualification, operation and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth only the material aspects of those sections. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions and the related Treasury Regulations and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof.

In connection with the filing of this registration statement, Bass, Berry & Sims PLC has rendered an opinion that we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT pursuant to Sections 856 through 860 of the Code for our taxable years ended December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2017, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT for our taxable year ended December 31, 2018 and in the future.

Investors should be aware that Bass, Berry & Sims PLC’s opinion is based on the federal income tax laws governing qualification as a REIT as of the date of such opinion, which is subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis, is not binding on the IRS or any court, and speaks only as of the date issued. In addition, Bass, Berry & Sims PLC’s opinion is based on customary assumptions and is conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets and income, the diversity of the ownership of our capital stock and the future conduct of our business. Moreover, our continued qualification and taxation as a REIT depend on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual results, certain qualification tests set forth in the federal income tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of our gross income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of our stock ownership, and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. Bass, Berry & Sims PLC will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any particular period will satisfy such requirements. Bass, Berry & Sims PLC’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which may require us to pay a material excise or penalty tax in order to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT, see “— Failure to Qualify as a REIT” below.

If we maintain our qualification as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders because we will be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay. The benefit of that tax treatment is that it avoids the “double taxation,” or taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels, that generally results from owning stock in a corporation. In general, income generated

 

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by a REIT is taxed only at the stockholder level if such income is distributed by the REIT to its stockholders. We will be subject to federal tax, however, in the following circumstances:

 

   

We are subject to the corporate federal income tax on any REIT taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to our stockholders during, or within a specified time period after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 

   

We are subject to tax, at the highest corporate rate, on:

 

   

net income from the sale or other disposition of property acquired through foreclosure (“foreclosure property”), as described below under “— Gross Income Tests — Foreclosure Property,” that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and

 

   

other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property.

 

   

We are subject to a 100% tax on net income from sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below under “— Gross Income Tests,” but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because we meet certain other requirements, we will be subject to a 100% tax on:

 

   

the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, in either case, multiplied by

 

   

a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year at least the sum of: (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income required to be distributed from earlier periods, then we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed.

 

   

If we fail any of the asset tests, other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test, as described below under “— Asset Tests,” as long as (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, (2) we file a description of each asset that caused such failure with the IRS, and (3) we dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal corporate income tax rate (which is 21% for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018) multiplied by the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on transactions with a taxable REIT subsidiary, including the provision of services to us by a taxable REIT subsidiary, that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.

 

   

If we acquire any asset from a C corporation, or a corporation that generally is subject to full corporate-level tax, in a merger or other transaction in which we acquire a basis in the asset that is determined by reference either to the C corporation’s basis in the asset or to another asset, we will pay tax at the highest corporate rate applicable if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of the asset during the five-year period after we acquire the asset. The amount of gain on which we will pay tax generally is the lesser of:

 

   

the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition, and

 

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the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the asset at the time we acquired it.

 

   

The earnings of our taxable REIT subsidiaries are subject to federal corporate income tax.

In addition, we may be subject to a variety of taxes, including payroll taxes and state, local and foreign income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations. We also could be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

A REIT is a corporation, trust or association that satisfies each of the following requirements:

(1) It is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

(2) Its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares of stock, or by transferable shares or certificates of beneficial interest;

(3) It would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, i.e. the REIT provisions;

(4) It is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to special provisions of the federal income tax laws;

(5) At least 100 persons are beneficial owners of its stock or ownership shares or certificates (determined without reference to any rules of attribution);

(6) During the last half of any taxable year, not more than 50% in value of its outstanding stock or shares of beneficial interest are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, which the federal income tax laws define to include certain entities;

(7) It elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes;

(8) It uses a calendar year for federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the federal income tax laws; and

(9) It meets certain other requirements described below, regarding the sources of its gross income, the nature and diversification of its assets and the distribution of its income.

We must satisfy requirements 1 through 4, and 8 during our entire taxable year and must satisfy requirement 5 during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. If we comply with certain requirements for ascertaining the beneficial ownership of our outstanding stock in a taxable year and have no reason to know that we violated requirement 6, we will be deemed to have satisfied requirement 6 for that taxable year. For purposes of determining stock ownership under requirement 6, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of requirement 6.

 

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Our charter provides for restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our stock that should allow us to continue to satisfy these requirements. The provisions of the charter restricting the ownership and transfer of our stock are described in “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law And of Our Charter And Bylaws — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” We believe we have issued sufficient stock with enough diversity of ownership to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 set forth above. For purposes of requirement 8, we have adopted December 31 as our year end for federal income tax purposes, and thereby satisfy this requirement.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” generally is a corporation, all of the stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by a REIT and that is not treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A corporation that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary” is treated as a division of the REIT that owns, directly or indirectly, all of its stock and not as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes. Thus, all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” are treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the REIT that directly or indirectly owns the qualified REIT subsidiary. Consequently, in applying the REIT requirements described herein, the separate existence of any “qualified REIT subsidiary” that we own will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of such subsidiary will be treated as our assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit.

Other Disregarded Entities and Partnerships. An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company, that has a single owner, as determined under the federal income tax laws, generally is not treated as an entity separate from its owner for federal income tax purposes. We own various direct and indirect interests in entities that are classified as partnerships, limited liability companies and trusts for state law purposes. Nevertheless, many of these entities currently are not treated as entities separate from their owners for federal income tax purposes because each such entity is treated as having a single owner for federal income tax purposes. Consequently, the assets and items of gross income of such entities will be treated as assets and items of gross income of their owners for federal income tax purposes, including the application of the various REIT qualification requirements.

An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners, as determined under the federal income tax laws, generally is taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is an owner of an entity that is taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, the REIT is treated as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the entity and as earning its allocable share of the gross income of the entity for purposes of the applicable REIT qualification tests. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of gross income of our Operating Partnership and each other partnership, joint venture, or limited liability company that is taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and in which we own a direct or indirect equity interest is treated as our assets and items of gross income for purposes of applying the various REIT qualification tests. For purposes of the 10% value test (described in “— Asset Tests”), our proportionate share would be based on our proportionate interest in the equity interests and certain debt securities issued by the entity. For all of the other asset and income tests, our proportionate share would be based on our proportionate interest in the capital of the entity.

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A REIT is permitted to own, directly or indirectly, up to 100% of the stock of one or more “taxable REIT subsidiaries.” The subsidiary and the REIT generally must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A corporation of which a taxable REIT subsidiary directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the securities, however, is automatically treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary without an election. Unlike a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” the separate existence of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not ignored for federal income tax purposes. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a fully taxable corporation that may earn income that would not be qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests, as described below, if earned directly by the parent REIT. Accordingly, a taxable REIT subsidiary generally is subject to corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow generated by us and our subsidiaries in the aggregate, and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We are not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that a taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by a taxable REIT subsidiary to us is an asset in our

 

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hands, and we will treat the distributions paid to us from such taxable REIT subsidiary, if any, as income. This treatment may affect our compliance with the gross income tests and asset tests. Because a REIT does not include the assets and income of taxable REIT subsidiaries in determining the REIT’s compliance with REIT requirements, such entities may be used by the REIT to undertake activities indirectly that the REIT requirements might otherwise preclude the REIT from doing directly or through a pass-through subsidiary (e.g., a partnership). If dividends are paid to us by one or more of our domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries that we may own, then a portion of such dividends that we distribute to our stockholders who are taxed at individual rates generally will be subject to federal income tax at the rates applicable to qualified dividend income rather than at the rates applicable to ordinary income. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements” and “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders — Distributions.”

A taxable REIT subsidiary pays federal income tax at corporate rates on its taxable income for each taxable year. Restrictions imposed on REITs and their taxable REIT subsidiaries are intended to ensure that taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to appropriate levels of federal income taxation. These restrictions limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its parent REIT and impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT, including services provided by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its parent REIT, or the REIT’s tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We may engage in certain activities, such as the provision of noncustomary tenant services or third-party management services, indirectly through a taxable REIT subsidiary to the extent that we determine that such activities could jeopardize our REIT status if we engaged in the activities directly. We also might dispose of an unwanted asset through a taxable REIT subsidiary as necessary or convenient to avoid the potential imposition of the 100% tax on income from prohibited transactions. See “— Gross Income Tests — Rents from Real Property” and “— Gross Income Tests — Prohibited Transactions.”

Gross Income Tests

We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of defined types of income that we derive, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or qualified temporary investment income. Qualifying income for purposes of that 75% gross income test generally includes:

 

   

rents from real property;

 

   

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

 

   

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, stock or shares of beneficial interest in other REITs;

 

   

gain from the sale of real estate assets;

 

   

income and gain derived from foreclosure property; and

 

   

income derived from the temporary investment of new capital that is attributable to the issuance of our stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we receive such new capital.

Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of interest and dividends, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of these.

Cancellation of indebtedness income and gross income from a sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. In addition, any gains from “hedging transactions,” as defined in “— Hedging Transactions,” that are clearly and timely identified as such will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Finally, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests.

 

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The following paragraphs discuss the specific application of the gross income tests to us.

Rents from Real Property. Rent that we receive for the use of our real property will qualify as “rents from real property,” which is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, only if the following conditions are met:

First, the rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Participating or percentage rent, however, will qualify as “rents from real property” if it is based on percentages of receipts or sales and the percentages:

 

   

are fixed at the time the leases are entered into;

 

   

are not renegotiated during the term of the leases in a manner that has the effect of basing percentage rent on income or profits; and

 

   

conform with normal business practice.

More generally, the rent will not qualify as “rents from real property” if, considering the relevant lease and all the surrounding circumstances, the arrangement does not conform with normal business practice, but is in reality used as a means of basing the rent on income or profits. We intend to set and accept rents which are fixed dollar amounts or a fixed percentage of gross revenue and not to any extent determined by reference to any person’s income or profits, in compliance with the rules above.

Second, we generally must not own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the stock or the assets or net profits of any tenant, referred to as a “related-party tenant,” other than a taxable REIT subsidiary. The constructive ownership rules generally provide that, if 10% or more in value of our stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any person, we are considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such person. Because the constructive ownership rules are broad and it is not possible to monitor direct and indirect transfers of our stock continually, no absolute assurance can be given that such transfers or other events of which we have no knowledge will not cause us to own constructively 10% or more of a tenant (or a subtenant, in which case only rent attributable to the subtenant is disqualified), other than a taxable REIT subsidiary.

Under an exception to the related-party tenant rule described in the preceding paragraph, rent that we receive from a taxable REIT subsidiary will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as (1) at least 90% of the leased space in the property is leased to persons other than taxable REIT subsidiaries and related-party tenants, and (2) the amount paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary to rent space at the property is substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants of the property for comparable space. The “substantially comparable” requirement must be satisfied when the lease is entered into, when it is extended, and when the lease is modified, if the modification increases the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary. If the requirement that at least 90% of the leased space in the related property is rented to unrelated tenants is met when a lease is entered into, extended, or modified, such requirement will continue to be met as long as there is no increase in the space leased to any taxable REIT subsidiary or related-party tenant. Any increased rent attributable to a modification of a lease with a taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock (a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary”) will not be treated as “rents from real property.”

Third, we must not furnish or render noncustomary services, other than a de minimis amount of noncustomary services, as described below, to the tenants of our properties other than through an independent contractor from whom we do not derive or receive any income or through a taxable REIT subsidiary. We generally may provide services directly to our tenants, however, to the extent that such services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of noncustomary services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor from whom we do not derive or receive

 

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any income or a taxable REIT subsidiary, as long as the income attributable to the services (valued at not less than 150% of the direct cost of performing such services) does not exceed 1% of our gross income from such property. If the rent from a lease does not qualify as “rents from real property” because we furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the property having a value in excess of 1% of our gross income from the related property, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or through a taxable REIT subsidiary, none of the rent from the property will qualify as “rents from real property.” We do not intend to provide any noncustomary services to our tenants, unless such services are provided through independent contractors from whom we do not derive or receive any income or through taxable REIT subsidiaries.

If the rent from a lease does not qualify as “rents from real property” because (1) the rent is based on the net income or profits of the tenant, (2) the lessee is a related-party tenant or fails to qualify for the exception to the related-party tenant rule for qualifying taxable REIT subsidiaries, or (3) we furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the property having a value in excess of 1% of our gross income from the related property, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or a taxable REIT subsidiary, we could lose our REIT status, unless we qualified for certain statutory relief provisions, because we might be unable to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test.

Tenants may be required to pay, in addition to base rent, reimbursements for certain amounts we are obligated to pay to third parties (such as a lessee’s proportionate share of a property’s operational or capital expenses), penalties for nonpayment or late payment of rent or additions to rent. These and other similar payments should qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent they do not, they should be treated as interest that qualifies for the 95% gross income test.

In addition, rent attributable to any personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property will not qualify as “rents from real property” if the rent attributable to such personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease. The rent attributable to personal property under a lease is the amount that bears the same ratio to total rent under the lease for the taxable year as the average of the fair market values of the leased personal property at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year bears to the average of the aggregate fair market values of both the real and personal property covered by the lease at the beginning and at the end of such taxable year, or the personal property ratio. If a portion of the rent that we receive from a property does not qualify as “rents from real property” because the rent attributable to personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent for a taxable year, the portion of the rent that is attributable to personal property will not be qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Thus, if such rent attributable to personal property, plus any other income that is nonqualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, during a taxable year exceeds 5% of our gross income during the year, we would lose our REIT status, unless we were able to utilize certain statutory relief provisions. We believe that any income attributable to personal property will not jeopardize our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT. There can be no assurance, however, that the IRS would not challenge our calculation of the personal property ratio for each of our leases, or that a court would agree with our calculation. If such a challenge were successful, we could fail to satisfy the 75% or 95% gross income test and thus potentially lose our REIT status.

Interest. For purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of such amount depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Furthermore, to the extent that interest from a loan that is based on the profit or net cash proceeds from the sale of the property securing the loan constitutes a “shared appreciation provision,” income attributable to such participation feature will be treated as gain from the sale of the secured property.

We may invest opportunistically from time to time in mortgage debt and mezzanine loans. Interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, discount points, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees, and late payment charges that are not compensation for

 

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services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In general, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan, determined as of (i) the date we agreed to acquire or originate the loan or (ii) in the event of a “significant modification,” the date we modified the loan, then a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. The portion of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the interest income attributable to the portion of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property. The principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property is the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan.

Mezzanine loans are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property. IRS Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests described below, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. We anticipate that any mezzanine loans that we originate or acquire typically will not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. Nevertheless, we intend to invest in any mezzanine loans in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the gross income tests and asset tests.

Dividends. Dividends received by us from a taxable REIT subsidiary will qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Our share of any dividends received from any other REIT in which we own an equity interest will be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Any dividends received by us from a qualified REIT subsidiary will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

Prohibited Transactions. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business, and net income derived from such prohibited transactions is excluded from gross income solely for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Whether a REIT holds an asset “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends, however, on the facts and circumstances that exist from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. A safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction and the resulting imposition of the 100% prohibited transactions tax is available, however, if the following requirements are met:

 

   

the REIT has held the property for not less than two years;

 

   

the aggregate expenditures made by the REIT, or any partner of the REIT, during the two-year period preceding the date of the sale that are includable in the basis of the property do not exceed 30% of the selling price of the property;

 

   

either (1) during the taxable year in question, the REIT did not make more than seven property sales other than sales of foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies, (2) the aggregate adjusted tax bases of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate tax bases of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year, (3) the aggregate fair market value of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate fair market value of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year, (4) the ratio of (i) the aggregate adjusted tax bases of property (other than sales of foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies) sold during the three taxable year period ending with the taxable year in question, divided by (ii) the sum of the aggregate adjusted tax bases of all of the assets of the REIT as of the beginning of each of the three taxable years which are part of such applicable three taxable year period, did not exceed 20%, or (5) the ratio of (i) the fair market value of property

 

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(other than sales of foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies) sold during the three taxable year period ending with the taxable year in question, divided by (ii) the sum of the fair market value of all of the assets of the REIT as of the beginning of each of the three taxable years which are part of such applicable three taxable year period, did not exceed 20%;

 

   

in the case of property not acquired through foreclosure or lease termination, the REIT has held the property for at least two years for the production of rental income; and

 

   

if the REIT has made more than seven property sales (excluding sales of foreclosure property) during the taxable year, substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures with respect to the property were made through an independent contractor from whom the REIT derives no income.

We will attempt to comply with the terms of the safe-harbor provisions in the federal income tax laws prescribing when an asset sale will not be characterized as a prohibited transaction. We cannot assure you, however, that we will be able to comply with the safe-harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property held “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.” We may hold and dispose of certain properties through a taxable REIT subsidiary if we conclude that the sale or other disposition of such property may not fall within the safe-harbor provisions. The 100% prohibited transaction tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a taxable REIT subsidiary although such gains will be taxed to the taxable REIT subsidiary at federal corporate income tax rates.

Foreclosure Property. We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, which includes certain foreign currency gains and related deductions, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. Gross income from foreclosure property, however, will qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. “Foreclosure property” is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

 

   

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

   

for which the related loan or leased property was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

   

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

A REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property, however, where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property (or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury). This period (as extended, if applicable) terminates, and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

   

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

   

on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

 

   

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent

 

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contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or a taxable REIT subsidiary.

Hedging Transactions. From time to time, we or our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our or our subsidiaries’ assets or liabilities. Our or our subsidiaries’ hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase such items, and futures and forward contracts. Income and gain from “hedging transactions” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. A “hedging transaction” means either (1) any transaction entered into in the normal course of our or our subsidiaries’ trade or business primarily to manage the risk of interest rate, price changes, or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, (2) any transaction entered into primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test (or any property which generates such income or gain) or (3) transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions with respect to which the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was disposed of or extinguished. We are required to clearly identify any such hedging transaction before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into and to satisfy other identification requirements. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT; however, no assurance can be given that our hedging activities will give rise to income that qualifies for purposes of either or both of the gross income tests.

Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests. We intend to monitor our sources of income, including any non-qualifying income received by us, and manage our assets so as to ensure our compliance with the gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the gross income tests for any taxable year, we nevertheless may maintain our qualification as a REIT for that year if we are able to utilize certain relief provisions of the federal income tax laws. Those relief provisions are available if:

 

   

our failure to meet the applicable test is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; and

 

   

following such failure for any taxable year, we file a schedule of the sources of our income with the IRS in accordance with the Treasury Regulations.

We cannot predict, however, whether any failure to meet these tests will enable us to utilize the relief provisions. In addition, as discussed above in “— Taxation of Our Company,” even if the relief provisions apply, we would incur a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of (1) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test, or (2) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test, multiplied, in either case, by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

Asset Tests

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we also must satisfy the following asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year.

First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets, or the “75% asset test,” must consist of:

 

   

cash or cash items, including certain receivables;

 

   

government securities;

 

   

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds and personal property leased in connection with such real property, provided that the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under such lease;

 

   

interests in mortgage loans secured by real property;

 

   

stock or shares of beneficial interest in other REITs;

 

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debt instruments of publicly-offered REITs; and

 

   

investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt with at least a five-year term.

Second, of our assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test described above, the value of our interest in any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, or the “5% asset test.”

Third, of our assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test described above, we may not own more than 10% of the voting power of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the “10% vote test,” or more than 10% of the value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the “10% value test.”

Fourth, no more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Fifth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and other taxable subsidiaries and other assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test.

Sixth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of debt instruments of publicly-offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly-offered REITs as assets that qualify for the 75% test solely because such debt instruments were issued by a publicly-offered REIT.

For purposes of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include stock in another REIT, equity or debt securities of a qualified REIT subsidiary or taxable REIT subsidiary, mortgage loans that constitute real estate assets, or equity interests in an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. The term “securities,” however, generally includes debt securities issued by an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes or another REIT, except that for purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include:

 

   

“Straight debt” securities, which is defined as a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (1) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into equity, and (2) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. “Straight debt” securities do not include any securities issued by an entity taxed as a partnership or a corporation in which we or any controlled taxable REIT subsidiary hold non-“straight debt” securities that have an aggregate value of more than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities. “Straight debt” securities include, however, debt subject to the following contingencies:

 

   

a contingency relating to the time of payment of interest or principal, as long as either (1) there is no change to the effective yield of the debt obligation, other than a change to the annual yield that does not exceed the greater of 0.25% or 5% of the annual yield, or (2) neither the aggregate issue price nor the aggregate face amount of the issuer’s debt obligations held by us exceeds $1 million and no more than 12 months of unaccrued interest on the debt obligations can be required to be prepaid; and

 

   

a contingency relating to the time or amount of payment on a default or prepayment of a debt obligation, as long as the contingency is consistent with customary commercial practice.

 

   

Any loan to an individual or an estate.

 

   

Any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related-party tenant.

 

   

Any obligation to pay “rents from real property.”

 

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Certain securities issued by governmental entities.

 

   

Any security issued by a REIT.

 

   

Any debt instrument issued by an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we are an owner to the extent of our proportionate interest in the debt and equity securities of the entity.

 

   

Any debt instrument issued by an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes not described in the preceding bullet points if at least 75% of the entity’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test described above in “— Gross Income Tests.”

For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by such entity, without regard to the securities described in the preceding two bullet points above.

We believe that the assets that we hold satisfy the foregoing asset test requirements. We will not obtain, however, nor are we required to obtain under the federal income tax laws, independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the value of our assets and securities or the real estate collateral for any mortgage or mezzanine loans that we may originate or acquire. Moreover, the values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination. As a result, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our ownership of securities and other assets violates one or more of the asset tests applicable to REITs.

As noted above, we may invest opportunistically in loans secured by interests in real property. If the outstanding principal balance of a loan at the end of a calendar quarter exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing such loan as of the date we agreed to originate or acquire the loan, a portion of such loan likely will not constitute a qualifying real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. Although the law on the matter is not entirely clear, it appears that the nonqualifying portion of such loan will be equal to the portion of the loan amount that exceeds the value of the associated real property that serves as security for that loan.

Failure to Satisfy Asset Tests. We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will manage our portfolio in order to comply at all times with such tests. Nevertheless, if we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, we will not lose our REIT status if:

 

   

we satisfied the asset tests at the end of the preceding calendar quarter; and

 

   

the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset test requirements arose from changes in the market values of our assets and was not caused, in part or in whole, by the acquisition of one or more non-qualifying assets.

If we did not satisfy the condition described in the second bullet point immediately above, we still could avoid REIT disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which the discrepancy arose.

In the event that we violate the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test described above, we will not lose our REIT status if (1) the failure is de minimis (i.e., up to the lesser of 1% of our assets or $10 million) and (2) we dispose of assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure. In the event of a failure of any of such asset tests other than a de minimis failure, as described in the preceding sentence, we will not lose our REIT status if (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, (2) we file a description of each asset causing the failure with the IRS, (3) we dispose of assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify the failure, and (4) we pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal corporate income tax rate (which is 21% for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018) multiplied by the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

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Annual Distribution Requirements

Each taxable year, we must make distributions, other than capital gain dividend distributions and deemed distributions of retained capital gain, to our stockholders in an aggregate amount at least equal to:

 

   

the sum of:

 

   

90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, and

 

   

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property, minus

 

   

the sum of certain items of non-cash income.

Generally, we must pay such distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if either (1) we declare the distribution before we timely file our federal income tax return for the year and pay the distribution on or before the first regular dividend payment date after such declaration or (2) we declare the distribution in October, November, or December of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified day in any such month, and we actually pay the dividend before the end of January of the following year. In both instances, these distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the annual distribution requirement.

We will pay federal income tax on any taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to our stockholders. Furthermore, if we fail to distribute during a calendar year, or by the end of January of the following calendar year in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, at least the sum of:

 

   

85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year,

 

   

95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and

 

   

any undistributed taxable income from prior years,

we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the amounts we actually distributed.

We may elect to retain and pay federal income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we receive in a taxable year. If we so elect, we will be treated as having distributed any such retained amount for purposes of the 4% nondeductible excise tax described above. We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirement and to minimize corporate income tax and avoid the 4% nondeductible excise tax.

In addition, if we were to recognize “built-in gain” on the disposition of any assets acquired from an entity treated as a C corporation for federal income tax purposes in a transaction in which our basis in the assets was determined by reference to such entity’s tax basis (for instance, if the assets were acquired in a tax-free reorganization), we would be required to distribute at least 90% of the built-in-gain net of the tax we would pay on such gain. “Built-in gain” is the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset (measured at the time of acquisition) over (2) the basis of the asset (measured at the time of acquisition).

It is possible that, from time to time, we may experience timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses and the inclusion of that income and deduction of such expenses in arriving at our REIT taxable income. Further, it is possible that, from time to time, we may be allocated a share of net capital gain from an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we own an interest that is attributable to the sale of depreciated property that exceeds our allocable share of cash attributable to that sale. As a result of the foregoing, we may have less cash than is necessary to make distributions to our stockholders that are sufficient to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible

 

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excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income or even to meet the annual distribution requirement. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional stock or, if possible, pay dividends consisting, in whole or in part, of our stock or debt securities.

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to correct a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year. We may include such deficiency dividends in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Although we may be able to avoid income tax on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based on the amount of any deduction we take for deficiency dividends.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We must maintain certain records in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT. To avoid paying monetary penalties, we must demand, on an annual basis, information from certain of our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding stock, and we must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with such demand as part of our records. A stockholder that fails or refuses to comply with such demand is required by the Treasury Regulations to submit a statement with its tax return disclosing the actual ownership of our stock and other information. We intend to comply with these recordkeeping requirements.

Failure to Qualify as a REIT

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. In addition, as discussed above, there are relief provisions available under the Code for a failure of the gross income tests and asset tests, as described in “— Gross Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests.”

If we were to fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT in any taxable year, and no relief provisions were available, we would be subject to (i) federal income tax on our taxable income at federal corporate income tax rates and (ii) with respect to taxable years ended on or before December 31, 2017, any applicable federal alternative minimum tax. In calculating our taxable income for a year in which we failed to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we would not be able to deduct from our taxable income amounts distributed to our stockholders, and we would not be required under the Code to distribute any amounts to our stockholders for that year. In such event, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions to our stockholders generally would be taxable to our stockholders as ordinary income. Subject to certain limitations of the federal income tax laws, our corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction, and stockholders taxed at individual rates may be eligible for a maximum federal income tax rate of 20% on such dividends. Unless we qualified for relief under the statutory relief provisions described in the preceding paragraph, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to maintain our qualification as a REIT. We cannot predict whether in all circumstances we would qualify for such statutory relief.

Taxation in Connection with Holding Securities other than our Stock

We intend to describe in any prospectus supplement related to the offering of our debt securities, depositary shares or subscription rights, the material federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of such securities, including, if applicable, (1) the taxation of any debt securities that will be sold with original issue discount or acquired with market discount or amortizable bond premium and (2) the tax treatment of sales, exchanges or retirements of our debt securities.

 

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Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

For purposes of our discussion, the term “U.S. stockholder” means a holder of our common stock or preferred stock that, for federal income tax purposes, is:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes) created or organized under the laws of the United States, any of its states or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate whose income is subject to federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership, entity or arrangement taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes (a “partnership”) holds our stock, the federal income tax treatment of an owner of the partnership generally will depend on the status of the owner and the activities of the partnership. If you are an owner of a partnership that may acquire our stock, you should consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our stock by the partnership.

Distributions. As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as capital gain dividends or retained long-term capital gains will be treated as dividends to taxable U.S. stockholders. In determining the extent to which a distribution with respect to our stock constitutes a dividend for federal income tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock and then to distributions with respect to our common stock. A corporate U.S. stockholder will not qualify for the dividends-received deduction, which generally is available to corporations, with respect to distributions received from us. Dividends paid to a U.S. stockholder generally will not qualify for the tax rates applicable to “qualified dividend income.” Qualified dividend income generally includes dividends paid by domestic C corporations and certain qualified foreign corporations to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates. Because we generally are not subject to federal income tax on the portion of our REIT taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders, our dividends generally will not constitute qualified dividend income.

The highest marginal individual income tax rate on ordinary income currently is 37% (which rate will apply for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025). For taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025, certain U.S. holders, including individuals, estates and certain trusts, generally may deduct an amount equal to 20% of the dividends received from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income. As a result of such 20% deduction, the maximum effective rate for such U.S. holders with respect to dividends paid by us, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, is 29.6% for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025.

The federal income tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income generally will apply, however, to our ordinary REIT dividends, if any, that are (1) attributable to qualified dividends received by us from non-REIT corporations, such as any taxable REIT subsidiaries, or (2) attributable to income recognized by us and on which we have paid federal corporate income tax (e.g., to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our taxable income). In general, to qualify for the reduced federal income tax rate on qualified dividend income under such circumstances, a U.S. stockholder must hold our stock for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which our stock becomes ex-dividend.

Any distribution we declare in October, November, or December of any year that is payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any of those months and is attributable to our current and accumulated earnings and profits for such year of declaration will be treated as paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of that year, provided that we actually pay the distribution during January of the following calendar year.

 

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Distributions to a U.S. stockholder which we designate as capital gain dividends generally will be treated as long-term capital gain, without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held our stock. See “— Capital Gains and Losses” below. A corporate U.S. stockholder may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

We may elect to retain and pay federal corporate income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we receive in a taxable year. In that case, to the extent that we designate such amount in a timely notice to our stockholders, a U.S. stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain. The U.S. stockholder would receive a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the federal corporate income tax we paid, however, the U.S. stockholder would increase its basis in our stock by the amount of its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain, minus its share of the federal corporate income tax we paid.

A U.S. stockholder will not incur federal income tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the distribution does not exceed the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in our stock. Instead, the distribution will reduce the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in our stock, and any amount in excess of both its share of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and its adjusted basis will be treated as capital gain, long-term if the stock has been held for more than one year, provided the stock is a capital asset in the hands of the U.S. stockholder.

U.S. stockholders may not include in their individual federal income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Instead, these losses are generally carried over by us, subject to certain limitations, for potential offset against our future income. Taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock will not be treated as passive activity income, and, therefore, U.S. stockholders generally will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses,” such as, for example, losses from certain types of entities in which the U.S. stockholder is treated as a limited partner for federal income tax purposes, against such income. In addition, taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations. We will notify U.S. stockholders after the close of our taxable year as to the portions of the distributions attributable to that taxable year that constitute ordinary income, return of capital and capital gain.

Dispositions. A U.S. stockholder who is not a dealer in securities generally must treat any gain or loss realized on a taxable disposition of our stock as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held such stock for more than one year, and otherwise as short-term capital gain or loss. In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between (1) the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and (2) the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such stock. A U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock generally will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of undistributed net capital gains deemed distributed by us to the U.S. stockholder over the federal corporate income tax deemed paid by the U.S. stockholder on such gains and reduced by any returns of capital. However, a U.S. stockholder must treat any loss on a sale or exchange of our stock held by such stockholder for six months or less as a long-term capital loss to the extent of capital gain dividends and any other actual or deemed distributions from us that such U.S. stockholder treats as long-term capital gain. All or a portion of any loss that a U.S. stockholder realizes on a taxable disposition of shares of our stock may be disallowed if the U.S. stockholder purchases other shares of our stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.

Capital Gains and Losses. The federal income tax rate differential between long-term capital gain and ordinary income for non-corporate taxpayers may be significant. A taxpayer generally must hold a capital asset for more than one year for gain or loss derived from its sale or exchange to be treated as long-term capital gain or loss. The maximum federal income tax rate on ordinary income applicable to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates currently is 37% (which rate will apply through our taxable year ending in 2025). For taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025, certain U.S. holders, including individuals, estates and certain

 

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trusts, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income. As a result of such 20% deduction, the maximum effective rate for such U.S. holders with respect to dividends paid by us that are taxable as ordinary income is 29.6% for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025. The maximum federal income tax rate on long-term capital gain applicable to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates currently is 20%. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “section 1250 property” (i.e., generally, depreciable real property) is 25% to the extent the gain would have been treated as ordinary income if the property were “section 1245 property” (i.e., generally, depreciable personal property). We generally will designate whether a distribution that we designate as capital gain dividends (and any retained capital gain that we are deemed to distribute) is attributable to the sale or exchange of “section 1250 property.” The characterization of income as capital gain or ordinary income may affect the deductibility of capital losses. A non-corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses not offset by capital gains against its ordinary income only up to a maximum annual amount of $3,000. A non-corporate taxpayer may carry forward unused capital losses indefinitely. A corporate taxpayer must pay tax on its net capital gain at federal corporate income tax rates, whether or not such gains are classified as long-term capital gains. A corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, with unused losses carried back three years and forward five years.

Additional Medicare Tax. A taxable U.S. stockholder that is an individual, an estate or an enumerated trust and that has taxable income in excess of certain thresholds (currently $250,000 for married couples filing jointly, $125,000 for married couples filing separately, $200,000 for single filers and heads of household and $12,500 for estates and trusts) generally is subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax on dividends received from us and on gain from the sale of our stock.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders

Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts (“qualified trust”) and individual retirement accounts and annuities, generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their “unrelated business taxable income,” or UBTI. Amounts that we distribute to tax-exempt stockholders generally should not constitute UBTI. If a tax-exempt stockholder were to finance its acquisition of our stock with debt, however, a portion of the distribution that it received from us would constitute UBTI pursuant to the “debt-financed property” rules. Furthermore, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the federal income tax laws are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as UBTI.

Finally, in certain circumstances, a qualified trust that owns more than 10% of the value of our stock must treat a percentage of the dividends that it receives from us as UBTI. Such percentage is equal to the gross income that we derive from unrelated trades or businesses, determined as if we were a qualified trust, divided by our total gross income for the year in which we pay the dividends. Such rule applies to a qualified trust holding more than 10% of the value of our stock only if:

 

   

we are classified as a “pension-held REIT”; and

 

   

the amount of gross income that we derive from unrelated trades or businesses for the year in which we pay the dividends, determined as if we were a qualified trust, is at least 5% of our total gross income for such year.

We will be classified as a “pension-held REIT” if:

 

   

we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the rule requiring that no more than 50% of our stock be owned by five or fewer individuals that allows the beneficiaries of the qualified trust to be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the qualified trust; and

 

   

either:

 

   

one qualified trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock; or

 

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a group of qualified trusts, of which each qualified trust holds more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of our stock.

As a result of limitations included in our charter on the transfer and ownership of our stock, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and, therefore, the tax treatment described in this paragraph should be inapplicable to our stockholders. However, because certain classes of our stock are publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

For purposes of our discussion, the term “non-U.S. stockholder” means a holder of our stock that is not a U.S. stockholder, an entity or arrangement taxed as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes or a tax-exempt stockholder. Special rules may apply to non-U.S. stockholders that are subject to special treatment under the Code, including controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies, U.S. expatriates and foreign persons eligible for benefits under an applicable income tax treaty with the United States.

We urge non-U.S. stockholders to consult their own tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, local and foreign income tax laws on the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions. A non-U.S. stockholder that receives a distribution that is not attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of a “United States real property interest,” or a USRPI (discussed below), and that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend or retained long-term capital gain will recognize ordinary income to the extent that we pay such distribution out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. A withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the distribution ordinarily will apply unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates the tax. A non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to federal income tax at graduated rates, however, on any distribution treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed on distributions. A corporate non-U.S. stockholder may, in addition, be subject to the 30% branch profits tax with respect to any such distribution. We plan to withhold federal income tax at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any distribution paid to a non-U.S. stockholder unless either:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder submits an IRS Form W-8BEN to us evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate;

 

   

the non-U.S. stockholder submits an IRS Form W-8ECI to us claiming that the distribution is effectively connected income; or

 

   

the distribution is treated as attributable to a sale of a USRPI under FIRPTA (discussed below).

A non-U.S. stockholder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the excess portion of such distribution does not exceed such non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in our stock. Instead, the excess portion of such distribution will reduce the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in our stock. A non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to tax on a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in our stock, if the non-U.S. stockholder otherwise would be subject to tax on gain from the sale or disposition of our stock, as described below. See “— Dispositions” below. Under FIRPTA (discussed below), we may be required to withhold 15% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Although we intend to withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution (other than a distribution attributable to a sale of a USRPI), to the extent that we do not do so, we may withhold at a rate of 15% on any portion of a distribution not subject to withholding at a rate of 30%. Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we may withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution. However, a non-U.S. stockholder may obtain a refund of amounts that we withhold if we later determine that a distribution in fact exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

 

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For any year in which we maintain our qualification as a REIT, the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, may apply to our sale or exchange of a USRPI. A USRPI includes certain interests in real property and stock in corporations at least 50% of whose assets consist of interests in real property. Under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder is taxed on distributions attributable to gain from sales of USRPIs as if such gain were effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder. A non-U.S. stockholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal capital gains rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual. A non-U.S. corporate stockholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution.

If a class of our stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States (any such class of our stock referred to as a “publicly traded class”), capital gain distributions to a non-U.S. stockholder in respect of stock of such publicly traded class that is attributable to our sale of real property will be treated as ordinary dividends rather than as gain from the sale of a USRPI, as long as such non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of the outstanding stock of such publicly traded class at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution. As a result, non-U.S. stockholders owning 10% or less of the outstanding stock of such publicly traded class generally would be subject to withholding tax on such capital gain distributions in the same manner as they are subject to withholding tax on other distributions. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly-traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules. Except as described in the immediately preceding two sentences, if a non-U.S. stockholder owned more than 10% of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution, capital gain distributions to such non-U.S. stockholder in respect of the stock of such publicly traded class that are attributable to our sale of USRPIs would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, as described above.

If a distribution is subject to FIRPTA, we must withhold a percentage of such distribution that we could designate as a capital gain dividend equal to the highest federal corporate income tax rate (which currently is 21%). A non-U.S. stockholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount that we withhold. Moreover, if a non-U.S. stockholder disposes of our stock during the 30-day period preceding a dividend payment, and such non-U.S. stockholder (or a person related to such non-U.S. stockholder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire our stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such dividend payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a USRPI capital gain to such non-U.S. stockholder, then such non-U.S. stockholder will be treated as having USRPI capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as USRPI capital gain.

Dispositions. Non-U.S. stockholders may incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized on a disposition of our stock since our stock will constitute a USRPI unless one of the applicable exceptions, as described below, applies. Any gain subject to tax under FIRPTA will be treated in the same manner as it would be in the hands of U.S. stockholders subject to alternative minimum tax, but under a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals.

Non-U.S. stockholders generally will not incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain on a sale of our stock, however, as long as, at all times during a specified testing period, we are domestically controlled, i.e., non-U.S. persons hold, directly or indirectly, less than 50% in value of our outstanding stock. We cannot assure you that we will be domestically controlled. In addition, even if we are not domestically controlled, a non-U.S. stockholder that owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class at all times during a specified testing period will not incur tax under FIRPTA on gain from a sale of such stock. In addition, dispositions of our stock by qualified shareholders are not subject to FIRPTA, except to the extent

 

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owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class. An actual or deemed disposition of our stock by such shareholders may also be treated as a dividend. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

A non-U.S. stockholder generally will incur tax on gain from a disposition of our stock not subject to FIRPTA if:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the conduct of the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax; or

 

   

the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are satisfied, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will incur a 30% tax on its capital gains.

Information Reporting Requirements, Backup Withholding and Certain Other Required Withholding

We will report to our stockholders and to the IRS the amount of distributions that we pay during each calendar year, and the amount of tax that we withhold, if any. Under the backup withholding rules, a stockholder may be subject to backup withholding (currently at a rate of 24% through our taxable year ending December 31, 2025) with respect to distributions unless the stockholder:

 

   

is a corporation or qualifies for certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact; or

 

   

provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules.

A stockholder who does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Any amount paid as backup withholding will be creditable against the stockholder’s federal income tax liability. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any stockholders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us.

Backup withholding generally will not apply to payments of dividends made by us or our paying agents, in their capacities as such, to a non-U.S. stockholder provided that such non-U.S. stockholder furnishes to us or our paying agent the required certification as to its non-U.S. status, such as providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8ECI, or certain other requirements are met. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that the holder is a “U.S. person” that is not an exempt recipient. Payments of the proceeds from a disposition or redemption of our stock that occurs outside the U.S. by a non-U.S. stockholder made by or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, information reporting (but not backup withholding) generally will apply to such a payment if the broker has certain connections with the U.S. unless the broker has documentary evidence in its records that demonstrates that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established. Payment of the proceeds from a disposition of our stock by a non-U.S. stockholder made by or through the U.S. office of a broker generally is subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless the non-U.S. stockholder certifies under penalties of perjury that it is not a U.S. person and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption from information reporting and backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be refunded or credited against the stockholder’s federal income tax liability if certain required information is

 

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furnished to the IRS. Stockholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding application of backup withholding to them and the availability of, and procedure for obtaining an exemption from, backup withholding.

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) imposes a federal withholding tax on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities unless certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligation requirements are satisfied. FATCA generally imposes a federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on dividends on, and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our stock if paid to a foreign entity unless either (i) the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution” that undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, or in the case of a foreign financial institution that is a resident in a jurisdiction that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement to implement FATCA, the entity complies with the diligence and reporting requirements of such agreement, (ii) the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution” and identifies certain of its U.S. investors, or (iii) the foreign entity otherwise is excepted under FATCA. Under delayed effective dates provided for in the Treasury Regulations and other IRS guidance, such required withholding will not begin until January 1, 2019 with respect to gross proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our stock.

If withholding is required under FATCA on a payment related to our stock, holders of our stock that otherwise would not be subject to withholding (or that otherwise would be entitled to a reduced rate of withholding) generally will be required to seek a refund or credit from the IRS to obtain the benefit of such exemption or reduction (provided that such benefit is available). You should consult your own tax advisor regarding the effect of FATCA on an investment in our stock.

Tax Aspects of Our Investments in Our Operating Partnership and Subsidiary Partnerships.

The following discussion summarizes the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to our investment in our Operating Partnership and any of our other subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes, each individually referred to as a “Partnership” and, collectively, as the “Partnerships.” The following discussion does not address state or local tax laws or any federal tax laws other than income tax laws.

Classification as Partnerships

We are required to include in our income our distributive share of each Partnership’s income and to deduct our distributive share of each Partnership’s losses but only if such Partnership is classified for federal income tax purposes as a partnership, rather than as a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation. An unincorporated entity with at least two owners, as determined for federal income tax purposes, will be classified as a partnership, rather than as a corporation, for federal income tax purposes if it:

 

   

is treated as a partnership under the Treasury Regulations relating to entity classification, or the “check-the-box regulations;” and

 

   

is not a “publicly traded partnership.”

Under the check-the-box regulations, an unincorporated entity with at least two owners for federal income tax purposes may elect to be classified either as an association taxable as a corporation or as a partnership. If such an entity does not make an election, it generally will be taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.

A publicly traded partnership is a partnership whose interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof. A publicly traded partnership generally is treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, but will not be so treated if, for each taxable year beginning after December 31, 1987 in which it was classified as a publicly traded partnership, at least 90% of the partnership’s gross income consisted of specified passive income, including real property rents, gains from

 

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the sale or other disposition of real property, interest, and dividends, or the “90% passive income exception.” The Treasury Regulations provide limited safe harbors from treatment as a publicly traded partnership. Pursuant to one of those safe harbors, interests in a partnership will not be treated as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if (1) all interests in the partnership were issued in a transaction or transactions that were not required to be registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and (2) the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the partnership’s taxable year. In determining the number of partners in a partnership, a person owning an interest in a partnership, grantor trust, or S corporation that owns an interest in the partnership is treated as a partner in such partnership only if (1) substantially all of the value of the owner’s interest in the entity is attributable to the entity’s direct or indirect interest in the partnership and (2) a principal purpose of the use of the entity is to permit the partnership to satisfy the 100-partner limitation. If any Partnership does not qualify for any safe harbor and is treated as a publicly traded partnership, we believe that such Partnership would have sufficient qualifying income to satisfy the 90% passive income exception and, therefore, would not be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes.

We have not requested, and do not intend to request, a ruling from the IRS that any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries is or will be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. If, for any reason, a Partnership were taxable as a corporation, rather than as a partnership, for federal income tax purposes, we may not be able to maintain our qualification as a REIT, unless we qualify for certain statutory relief provisions. See “— Gross Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests.” In addition, any change in a Partnership’s status for tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we might incur tax liability without any related cash distribution. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements.” Further, items of income and deduction of such Partnership would not pass through to us, and we would be treated as a stockholder of such Partnership for federal income tax purposes. Consequently, such Partnership would be required to pay income tax at corporate rates on its net income, and distributions to us would constitute dividends that would not be deductible in computing such Partnership’s taxable income.

Income Taxation of the Partnerships and Their Partners

Partners, Not the Partnerships, Subject to Tax. A Partnership is not a taxable entity for federal income tax purposes. Rather, we are required to take into account our distributive share of each Partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits for each taxable year of the Partnership ending with or within our taxable year, even if we receive no distribution from the Partnership for that year or a distribution that is less than our share of taxable income. Similarly, even if we receive a distribution, it may not be taxable if the distribution does not exceed our adjusted tax basis in our interest in the Partnership.

Partnership Allocations. Although an agreement among the owners of an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes generally will determine the allocation of income and losses among the owners, such allocations will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations. If an allocation is not recognized for federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the “partners’ interests in the partnership,” which will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the owners with respect to such item.

Tax Allocations With Respect to Contributed Properties. Income, gain, loss, and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in exchange for an interest in such entity must be allocated for federal income tax purposes in a manner such that the contributing owner is charged with, or benefits from, respectively, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution (the “704(c) Allocations”). The amount of such unrealized gain or unrealized loss, referred to as “built-in gain” or “built-in loss,” at the time of contribution is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property at the time of contribution and the adjusted tax basis of such property at that time, referred to as a book-tax difference. A book-tax difference attributable to depreciable property generally is decreased on an annual basis as a result of

 

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the allocation of depreciation deductions to the contributing owner for book purposes, but not for tax purposes. The 704(c) Allocations are solely for federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the owners. The Treasury Regulations require entities taxed as partnerships for federal income tax purposes to use a “reasonable method” for allocating items with respect to which there is a book-tax difference and outline several reasonable allocation methods.

The carryover tax basis of any properties actually contributed to our Operating Partnership or another Partnership in which we own an interest by an additional owner, under certain reasonable methods available to us, including the “traditional method,” (1) may cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if all contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to their fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) in the event of a sale of such properties, may cause us to be allocated taxable gain in excess of the economic or book gain allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding tax benefit to the contributing partners. An allocation described in clause (2) of the immediately preceding sentence may cause us to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which may adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements and may result in a greater portion of our distributions being taxed as dividends.

Tax Basis in Partnership Interest. Our adjusted tax basis in any Partnership interest we own generally will be:

 

   

the amount of cash and the basis of any other property we contribute to the Partnership;

 

   

increased by our distributive share of the Partnership’s income (including tax-exempt income) and any increase in our allocable share of indebtedness of the Partnership; and

 

   

reduced, but not below zero, by our distributive share of the Partnership’s loss (including any non-deductible items), the amount of cash and the basis of property distributed to us, and any reduction in our allocable share of indebtedness of the Partnership.

Loss allocated to us in excess of our basis in a Partnership interest will not be taken into account for federal income tax purposes until we again have tax basis sufficient to absorb the loss. A reduction of our allocable share of indebtedness of the Partnership will be treated as a constructive cash distribution to us, and will reduce our adjusted tax basis in the Partnership interest. Distributions, including constructive distributions, in excess of the basis of our partnership interest will constitute taxable income to us. Such distributions and constructive distributions normally will be characterized as long-term capital gain.

Sale of a Partnership’s Property. Generally, any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of property held for more than one year will be long-term capital gain, except for any portion of the gain treated as depreciation or cost recovery recapture. Our share of any Partnership’s gain from the sale of inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the Partnership’s trade or business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction subject to a 100% tax. Income from a prohibited transaction may have an adverse effect on our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for REIT status. See “— Gross Income Tests.” We presently do not intend to acquire or hold, or to allow any Partnership to acquire or hold, any property that is likely to be treated as inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our, or any Partnership’s, trade or business.

Partnership Audit Rules. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is uncertain how certain aspects of these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in Partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our Operating Partnership, being

 

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required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and in many respects dependent on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Treasury Department. You should consult your own tax advisors regarding these changes and their potential impact on an investment in our securities.

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and Other Possible Legislation or Actions Affecting Tax Consequences

On December 22, 2017, President Donald J. Trump signed into law P.L. 115-97, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”). The TCJA makes significant changes to U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to businesses and their owners, including REITs and their stockholders, and may lessen the relative competitive advantage of operating as a REIT rather than as a corporation

Certain key provisions of the TCJA that could impact us and our stockholders, beginning in 2018, include:

 

   

temporary reduction of the U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to ordinary income of individuals; the highest individual U.S. federal income tax rate is reduced from 39.6% to 37% for our taxable years beginning in 2018 through our taxable year ending in 2025;

 

   

reduction of the maximum corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%;

 

   

a new deduction for certain pass-through business income, including dividends received by our shareholders that are not designated by us as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income, which will allow individuals, trusts, and estates to deduct up to 20% of such amounts, generally resulting in an effective maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 29.6% on such dividends from us (through taxable years ending in 2025);

 

   

reduction of the highest rate of withholding from 35% to 21% with respect to our distributions to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as attributable to gains from the sale or exchange of U.S. real property interests;

 

   

limitation of our deduction for net operating losses to 80% of taxable income (prior to the application of the dividends paid deduction);

 

   

limitation on the deduction of net interest expense, other than certain businesses that are eligible to elect out of such limitation; and

 

   

elimination of the corporate alternative minimum tax.

You should recognize that the current federal income tax treatment of an investment in our securities may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time and that any such action may affect an investment in our securities adversely. Legislators, the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS regularly review the federal income tax laws, including the Code, Treasury Regulations, rulings, administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS. Revisions to the federal income tax laws could make an investment in our securities less attractive from a federal income tax standpoint.

Consequently, you should consult your own tax advisors regarding the effect of the TCJA and other potential changes to the federal income tax laws on an investment in our securities.

State and Local Taxes

We and you may be subject to taxation by various states and localities, including those in which we or a holder of our securities transacts business, owns property or resides. The state and local tax treatment may differ from the federal income tax treatment described above. Consequently, you should consult your own tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws on an investment in our securities.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Offering and Sale of Securities

Unless otherwise set forth in an accompanying prospectus supplement to this prospectus, we may sell the securities being offered hereby, from time to time, in one or more offerings, on a continuous or delayed basis, by one or more of the following methods:

 

   

to or through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters;

 

   

through one or more underwriters without a syndicate for them to offer and sell to the public;

 

   

to or through dealers, brokers, placement agents or other agents;

 

   

to investors directly in negotiated sales or in competitively bid transactions; and

 

   

in “at-the-market offerings” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise.

One or more prospectus supplements will describe the terms of the offering of the respective securities, including:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, brokers, placement agents or other agents, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at fixed prices which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of the sale;

 

   

at varying prices determined at the time of sale;

 

   

at negotiated prices; or

 

   

at prices determined by an auction process.

Each prospectus supplement will set forth the manner and terms of an offering of securities including:

 

   

the number and terms of the securities to which such prospectus relates;

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, brokers, placement agents or other agents with whom we have entered into arrangements with respect to the sale of such securities;

 

   

the rules and procedures for any auction or bidding process, if used;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price of such securities and the net proceeds we will receive from such sale; and

 

   

any other applicable terms of the offering.

 

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If we do not name a firm in the prospectus supplement, the firm may not directly or indirectly participate in any underwriting of those securities, although it may participate in the distribution of securities under circumstances entitling it to a dealer’s allowance or agent’s commission. We may enter into derivative transactions with third parties or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the related prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the related prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be identified in the related prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment).

Sales Through Underwriters

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell them from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities of the series offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. The underwriters may engage in stabilizing and syndicate covering transactions in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act, and such transactions may be discontinued at any time by the underwriters. We may use underwriters who may engage in transactions with and perform services for us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of business. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

Sales Through Agents

We may sell securities directly or through agents that we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions that we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

Securities bought in accordance with a redemption or repayment under their terms also may be offered and sold, if so indicated in the accompanying prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing by one or more firms acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified, and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities remarketed by them. If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers by certain specified institutions to purchase securities at a price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a future date specified in the prospectus supplement. These contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement, and the prospectus supplement will set forth the commissions payable for solicitation of these contracts.

Direct Sales

We may solicit offers to purchase securities directly from the public from time to time. We may also authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions that we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

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General Information

We will file a supplement to this prospectus, if required, pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, if we enter into any material arrangement with a broker, dealer, agent or underwriter for the sale of securities through a block trade, special offering, exchange distribution or secondary distribution or a purchase by a broker or dealer. Such prospectus supplement will disclose:

 

   

the name of any participating underwriter, broker, dealer, placement agent or other agent;

 

   

the number and type of securities involved;

 

   

any securities exchanges on which such securities may be listed;

 

   

the commissions paid or discounts or concessions allowed to any such broker, dealer, agent or underwriter where applicable;

 

   

a description of any indemnification rights to which underwriters, brokers, dealers, placement agents or other agents are entitled; and

 

   

other facts material to the transaction.

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to such liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GOOD.” Our Series A Preferred Stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GOODP,” our Series B Preferred Stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GOODO” and our Series D Preferred Stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GOODM.” Our Senior Common Stock is not listed on an exchange. All securities that we offer, other than our Listed Common Stock and other than securities issued upon a reopening of a previous series, such as our outstanding series of Preferred Stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for any securities sold by us.

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Global Select Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering and before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.

Some of the underwriters, dealers and agents and their affiliates may engage in transactions with or perform services for us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business. Underwriters have from time to time in the past provided, and may from time to time in the future provide, investment banking services to us for which they have in the past received, and in the future may receive, customary fees.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain federal income tax matters will be passed upon for us by Bass, Berry & Sims PLC, Nashville, Tennessee. Certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the securities to be offered by means of this prospectus, will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, brokers, dealers, placement agents or other agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in the Report of Management on Internal Controls over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are a public company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are also available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We also make available free of charge through our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as well as our definitive proxy statement and Section 16 reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5. Our website address is www.GladstoneCommercial.com. However, the information located on, or accessible from, our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, except as described below, a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or incorporated into any other filings that we make with the SEC.

This prospectus comprises only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and, therefore, omits some of the information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules to the registration statement which are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. You may inspect or obtain a copy of the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules, as described in the previous paragraph.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information that we file with it which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to comprise a part of this prospectus from the date we file that document. Any reports filed by us with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and before the date that the offering of the securities by means of this prospectus is terminated will automatically update and, where applicable, supersede any information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

We previously filed the following documents with the SEC, and such filings are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, filed February 14, 2018 (including portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders incorporated therein by reference);

 

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Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2018, filed May 1, 2018;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2018, filed July 30, 2018;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended September 30, 2018, filed October 30, 2018;

 

   

Current Report on Form 8-K, filed April 12, 2018;

 

   

Current Report on Form 8-K, filed May 7, 2018;

 

   

Current Report on Form 8-K, filed July 11, 2018;

 

   

Current Report on Form 8-K, filed November 1, 2018;

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed August 12, 2003, as updated through subsequently filed reports;

 

   

The description of our Series A Preferred Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed January 19, 2006, as updated through subsequently filed reports;

 

   

The description of our Series B Preferred Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed October 19, 2006, as amended in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A/A, filed on October 23, 2006, as updated through subsequently filed reports; and

 

   

The description of our Series D Preferred Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed May 25, 2016, as updated through subsequently filed reports.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, from the filing of this prospectus until all of the securities offered by this prospectus have been sold or we otherwise terminate the offering of these securities, including all filings made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement; provided, however, that information “furnished” under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K or other information “furnished” to the SEC which is not deemed filed is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Information that we subsequently file with the SEC will automatically update and may supersede information in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and information previously filed with the SEC.

You may request a copy of these filings (other than exhibits, unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into these documents) at no cost by writing or calling Investor Relations at the following address and telephone number:

Investor Relations

Gladstone Commercial Corporation

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, Virginia 22102

(703) 287-5893

 

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$500,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Depositary Shares

Subscription Rights

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

                    , 2019

 

 

 


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PART II INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

ITEM 14. OTHER EXPENSES OF ISSUANCE AND DISTRIBUTION

The following table sets forth the various expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, to be incurred by us in connection with the registration of the securities being registered hereby, all of which will be borne by Gladstone Commercial Corporation. All of the amounts shown are estimated except the SEC registration fee:

 

SEC Registration Fee

   $ 57,235  

Printing and Engraving Expenses*

   $ 10,000  

Legal Fees and Expenses*

   $ 40,000  

Accounting Fees and Expenses*

   $ 30,000  

Miscellaneous Expenses**

  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 137,235  
  

 

 

 

 

*

Does not include expenses of preparing prospectus supplements, listing fees and other expenses relating to offerings of particular securities.

**

Not determinable at the time of filing.

ITEM 15. INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty which is established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates directors’ and officers’ liability (except for liability resulting from an intentionally wrongful, willful or malicious act which is established by a judgment or other final adjudication and which is material to the cause of action) to the maximum extent permitted by the MGCL.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which the Company’s charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

an act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:

 

   

was committed in bad faith; or

 

   

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

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a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

Our charter obligates us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any director or officer, whether serving us or at our request any other entity; and

 

   

other employees and agents (including our advisors) to the extent authorized by our board of directors or bylaws and permitted by law.

In addition, we maintain insurance under which coverage is provided to our directors and officers against certain losses arising from claims of breach of duty.

The partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership provides that we, as general partner of our Operating Partnership, and our directors and officers are indemnified to the fullest extent permitted by law.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and persons controlling us pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that, in the opinion of the Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

ITEM 16. EXHIBITS

 

Exhibit

Number

  

Exhibit Description

1.1†    Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2    Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated September  2, 2014, by and among the Registrant, Gladstone Commercial Limited Partnership, and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form  8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed September 2, 2014.
1.3    Amendment No.  1 to Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated as of February 22, 2016, by and among the Registrant, Gladstone Commercial Limited Partnership, and Cantor Fitzgerald  & Co., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed February  22, 2016.
1.4    Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated February  22, 2016, by and among the Registrant, Gladstone Commercial Limited Partnership and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form  8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed February 22, 2016.
3.1    Articles of Restatement of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed January 12, 2017.
3.2    Bylaws of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (File No. 333-106024), filed June 11, 2003.
3.3    First Amendment to Bylaws of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 of the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed July 10, 2007.
3.4    Second Amendment to Bylaws of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed December 1, 2016.
3.5    Articles Supplementary of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed April 12, 2018.
3.6    Articles of Amendment of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed April 12, 2018.

 

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Exhibit

Number

  

Exhibit Description

4.1    Second Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Gladstone Commercial Limited Partnership, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-33097), filed July 11, 2018.
4.2    Form of Certificate for Common Stock of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit  4.1 to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (File No.  333-106024), filed August 8, 2003.
4.3    Form of Certificate for 7.75% Series  A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 of the Registrant’s Form 8-A12G (File No.  000-50363), filed January 19, 2006.
4.4    Form of Certificate for 7.50% Series  B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 of the Registrant’s Form 8-A12B (File No.  001-33097), filed October 19, 2006.
4.5    Form of Certificate for 7.00% Series  D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock of the Registrant, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No.  001-33097), filed May 25, 2016.
4.6*    Form of Indenture
4.7†    Form of Debt Security
4.8†    Form of Guarantee of Debt Security
4.9†    Form of Deposit Agreement
4.10†    Form of Subscription Right
5.1*    Opinion of Venable LLP as to the legality of the securities being registered
5.2*    Opinion of Bass, Berry & Sims PLC as to the legality of the securities being registered
8.1*    Opinion of Bass, Berry & Sims PLC as to certain tax matters
23.1*    Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
23.2*    Consent of Venable LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
23.3*    Consent of Bass, Berry & Sims PLC (included in Exhibit 5.2)
23.4*    Consent of Bass, Berry & Sims PLC (included in Exhibit 8.1)
24.1*    Power of Attorney (included on the Signature Page of this Registration Statement)
25.1††    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1

 

*

Filed herewith.

To be filed by amendment to the registration statement or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K in reference to the specific offering of securities, if any, to which it relates, and incorporated herein by reference.

††

To be filed separately pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, under electronic form type 305B2.

ITEM 17. UNDERTAKINGS

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

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(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in the volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

Provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such

 

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purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of the securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(d) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes, when applicable, (1) to use its best efforts to distribute prior to the opening of bids, to prospective bidders, underwriters, and dealers, a reasonable number of copies of a prospectus which at that time meets the requirements of section 10(a) of the Act, and relating to the securities offered at competitive bidding, as contained in the registration statement, together with any supplements thereto, and (2) to file an amendment to the registration statement reflecting the results of bidding, the terms of the reoffering and related matters to the extent required by the applicable form, not later than the first use, authorized by the issuer after the opening of bids, of a prospectus relating to the securities offered at competitive bidding, unless no further public offering of such securities by the issuer and no reoffering of such securities by the purchasers is proposed to be made.

(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Exchange Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(j) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (the “Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-5


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of McLean, Commonwealth of Virginia, on January 11, 2019.

 

GLADSTONE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION
By:  

/s/ David Gladstone

 

David Gladstone

Chairman of the Board of Directors and

Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Each of the undersigned does hereby constitute and appoint David Gladstone, Michael LiCalsi and Michael Sodo, and each of them severally, his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact with power of substitution and resubmission to sign in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to do any and all things and execute any and all instruments that the attorney may deem necessary or advisable under the Securities Act of 1933, and any rules, regulations and requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with this registration statement registration, including specifically, but without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the power and authority to sign his or her name, in his or her respective capacity as a member of the board of directors or officer of the registrant, the registration statement and/or any other form or forms as may be appropriate to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as any of them may deem appropriate in connection therewith, to any and all amendments thereto, including post-effective amendments, to such registration statement, to any related Rule 462(b) registration statement and to any other documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, and hereby ratifies and confirms all said attorneys-in-fact and agents, each acting alone, and his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue of this prospectus.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

/s/ David Gladstone

David Gladstone

 

Chairman of the Board of Directors and
Chief Executive Officer

(principal executive officer)

  January 11, 2019

/s/ Michael Sodo

Michael Sodo

 

Chief Financial Officer

(principal financial and accounting officer)

  January 11, 2019

/s/ Terry L. Brubaker

Terry L. Brubaker

  Vice Chairman, Chief Operating Officer
and Director
  January 11, 2019

/s/ Paul W. Adelgren

Paul W. Adelgren

  Director   January 11, 2019

/s/ Michela English

Michela English

  Director   January 11, 2019


Table of Contents

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

/s/ Caren D. Merrick

Caren D. Merrick

 

 

Director

 

 

January 11, 2019

/s/ John H. Outland

John H. Outland

  Director   January 11, 2019

/s/ Anthony W. Parker

Anthony W. Parker

  Director   January 11, 2019

/s/ Walter H. Wilkinson, Jr.

Walter H. Wilkinson, Jr.

  Director   January 11, 2019
EX-4.6

Exhibit 4.6

FORM OF INDENTURE

GLADSTONE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of [ ],             

 

 

[ ]

Trustee

 

 


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE*

 

Trust Indenture
Act Section
       Indenture Section

310(a)(1)

     7.10

(a)(2)

     7.10

(a)(3)

     N.A.

(a)(4)

     N.A.

(a)(5)

     7.10

(b)

     7.10

(c)

     N.A.

311(a)

     7.11

(b)

     7.11

(c)

     N.A.

312(a)

     2.06

(b)

     12.03

(c)

     12.03

313(a)

     7.06

(b)(2)

     7.06; 7.07

(c)

     7.06; 12.02

(d)

     7.06

314(a)

     4.03; 12.02; 12.05

(c)(1)

     12.04

(c)(2)

     12.04

(c)(3)

     N.A.

(e)

     12.05

(f)

     N.A.

315(a)

     7.01

(b)

     7.05, 12.02

(c)

     7.01

(d)

     7.01

(e)

     6.11

316(a) (last sentence)

     2.09

(a)(1)(A)

     6.05

(a)(1)(B)

     6.04

(a)(2)

     N.A.

(b)

     6.07

(c)

     2.13

317(a)(1)

     6.08

(a)(2)

     6.09

(b)

     2.05

318(a)

     12.01

(b)

     N.A.

(c)

     12.01

 

N.A. means not applicable.

*

This Cross Reference Table is not part of the Indenture.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  
ARTICLE 1.

 

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION

 

BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.01 Definitions

     1  

Section 1.02 Other Definitions

     6  

Section 1.03 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act

     6  

Section 1.04 Rules of Construction

     7  
ARTICLE 2.

 

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Issuable in Series

     7  

Section 2.02 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities

     7  

Section 2.03 Execution and Authentication

     10  

Section 2.04 Registrar and Paying Agent

     11  

Section 2.05 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust

     11  

Section 2.06 Holder Lists

     11  

Section 2.07 Transfer and Exchange

     12  

Section 2.08 Replacement Securities

     12  

Section 2.09 Outstanding Securities

     12  

Section 2.10 Treasury Securities

     13  

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities

     13  

Section 2.12 Cancellation

     13  

Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest

     13  

Section 2.14 Global Securities

     14  

Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers

     15  
ARTICLE 3.

 

REDEMPTION AND PREPAYMENT

 

Section 3.01 Notices to Trustee

     15  

Section 3.02 Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed or Purchased

     15  

Section 3.03 Notice of Redemption

     16  

Section 3.04 Effect of Notice of Redemption

     17  

Section 3.05 Deposit of Redemption or Purchase Price

     17  

Section 3.06 Securities Redeemed or Purchased in Part

     17  
ARTICLE 4.

 

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01 Payment of Securities

     18  

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency

     18  

Section 4.03 Reports

     19  

Section 4.04 Compliance Certificate

     19  

Section 4.05 Taxes

     19  

Section 4.06 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws

     20  

Section 4.07 Corporate Existence

     20  

 

i


     Page  
ARTICLE 5.

 

SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.01 Merger, Consolidation, or Sale of Assets

     20  

Section 5.02 Successor Person Substituted

     21  
ARTICLE 6.

 

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

Section 6.01 Events of Default

     21  

Section 6.02 Acceleration

     22  

Section 6.03 Other Remedies

     23  

Section 6.04 Waiver of Past Defaults

     23  

Section 6.05 Control by Majority

     23  

Section 6.06 Limitation on Suits

     24  

Section 6.07 Rights of Holders of Securities to Receive Payment

     24  

Section 6.08 Collection Suit by Trustee

     24  

Section 6.09 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

     24  

Section 6.10 Priorities

     25  

Section 6.11 Undertaking for Costs

     25  
ARTICLE 7.

 

TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01 Duties of Trustee

     26  

Section 7.02 Rights of Trustee

     27  

Section 7.03 Individual Rights of Trustee

     27  

Section 7.04 Trustee’s Disclaimer

     28  

Section 7.05 Notice of Defaults

     28  

Section 7.06 Reports by Trustee to Holders of the Securities

     28  

Section 7.07 Compensation and Indemnity

     28  

Section 7.08 Replacement of Trustee

     29  

Section 7.09 Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.

     30  

Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification

     30  

Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company

     30  
ARTICLE 8.

 

LEGAL DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

 

Section 8.01 Option to Effect Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance

     31  

Section 8.02 Legal Defeasance and Discharge

     31  

Section 8.03 Covenant Defeasance

     31  

Section 8.04 Conditions to Legal or Covenant Defeasance

     32  

Section 8.05 Deposited Money and Government Securities to be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions

     33  

Section 8.06 Repayment to Company

     33  

Section 8.07 Reinstatement

     34  
ARTICLE 9.

 

AMENDMENT, SUPPLEMENT AND WAIVER

 

Section 9.01 Without Consent of Holders of Securities

     34  

Section 9.02 With Consent of Holders of Securities

     35  

Section 9.03 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act

     37  

Section 9.04 Revocation and Effect of Consents

     37  

 

ii


     Page  

Section 9.05 Notation on or Exchange of Securities

     37  

Section 9.06 Trustee to Sign Amendments, etc.

     37  
ARTICLE 10.

 

GUARANTEES

 

Section 10.01 Guarantees

     37  

Section 10.02 Limitation on Guarantor Liability

     38  

Section 10.03 Execution and Delivery of Security Guarantee

     39  

Section 10.04 Guarantors May Consolidate, etc., on Certain Terms

     39  

Section 10.05 Releases Following Sale of Assets

     40  
ARTICLE 11.

 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 

Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge

     40  

Section 11.02 Application of Trust Money

     41  
ARTICLE 12.

 

MISCELLANEOUS

 

Section 12.01 Trust Indenture Act Controls

     42  

Section 12.02 Notices

     42  

Section 12.03 Communication by Holders of Securities with Other Holders of Securities

     43  

Section 12.04 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent

     43  

Section 12.05 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion

     43  

Section 12.06 Rules by Trustee and Agents

     44  

Section 12.07 No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders

     44  

Section 12.08 Governing Law

     44  

Section 12.09 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements

     44  

Section 12.10 Successors

     44  

Section 12.11 Severability

     44  

Section 12.12 Counterpart Originals

     44  

Section 12.13 Table of Contents, Headings, etc.

     44  

 

iii


INDENTURE dated as of [ ],              between Gladstone Commercial Corporation, a Maryland corporation, the Guarantors (as defined herein) and [ ], as trustee.

The Company, the Guarantors and the Trustee agree as follows for the benefit of each other and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders (as defined herein) of the Securities issued under this Indenture:

ARTICLE 1.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION

BY REFERENCE

Section 1.01 DefinitionsAdditional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For purposes of this definition, “control,” as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise; provided that beneficial ownership of 10% or more of the Voting Stock of a Person will be deemed to be control. For purposes of this definition, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with” have correlative meanings.

“Agent” means any Registrar, co-registrar, Paying Agent or additional paying agent.

Authentication Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

“Business Day” means any day other than a Legal Holiday.

Capital Lease Obligation” means, at the time any determination is to be made, the amount of the liability in respect of a capital lease that would at that time be required to be capitalized on a balance sheet in accordance with GAAP.

Capital Stock” means:

(1) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock;

(2) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock;

 

1


(3) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership or membership interests (whether general or limited); and

(4) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person.

“Company” means Gladstone Commercial Corporation, a Maryland corporation, and any and all successors thereto.

“Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee” will be at the address of the Trustee specified in Section 12.02 hereof or such other address as to which the Trustee may give notice to the Company.

“Default” means any event that is, or with the passage of time or the giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities issuable or issued in whole or in part in global form, the Person specified in Section 2.02 hereof as the Depositary with respect to the Securities, and any and all successors thereto appointed as depositary hereunder and having become such pursuant to the applicable provision of this Indenture.

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession as amended and/or modified from time to time.

“Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

“Government Securities” means securities issued or directly and fully guaranteed or insured by the United States government or any agency or instrumentality of the United States government ( provided that the full faith and credit of the United States is pledged in support of those securities), and additionally, in respect of any Series of Securities denominated in other than United States dollars, securities issued or directly and fully guaranteed or insured by the government in whose currencies such Series of Securities are denominated (which in the case of the Euro shall be deemed to include any government whose functional currency is the Euro).

Guarantee” means a guarantee other than by endorsement of negotiable instruments for collection or deposit in the ordinary course of business, direct or indirect, in any manner including, without limitation, by way of a pledge of assets or through letters of credit or reimbursement agreements in respect thereof, of all or any part of any Indebtedness.

“Guarantors” means each of:

 

2


(1) the guarantors listed on the signature pages hereto; and

(2) any other Subsidiary that executes a Security Guarantee in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture,

and their respective successors and assigns.

“Hedging Obligations” means, with respect to any specified Person, the obligations of such Person under:

(1) interest rate swap agreements (whether from fixed to floating or from floating to fixed), interest rate cap agreements and interest rate collar agreements;

(2) other agreements or arrangements designed to manage interest rates or interest rate risk; and

(3) other agreements or arrangements designed to protect such Person against fluctuations in currency exchange rates or commodity prices.

“Holder” means a Person in whose name a Security is registered.

Indebtedness” means, with respect to any specified Person, any indebtedness of such Person, whether or not contingent:

(1) in respect of borrowed money;

(2) evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments or letters of credit or reimbursement agreements in respect thereof (other than reimbursement obligations with respect to letters of credit securing obligations (other than obligations described in (1), (2) (other than letters of credit), (3), (4), (5) or (6)) entered into in the ordinary course of business of such Person to the extent such letters of credit are not drawn upon or, if and to the extent drawn upon, such drawing is reimbursed no later than the third Business Day following receipt by such Person of a demand for reimbursement following payment on the letter of credit);

(3) in respect of banker’s acceptances;

(4) representing Capital Lease Obligations;

(5) representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property, except any such balance that constitutes an accrued expense or trade payable; or

(6) representing any Hedging Obligations,

if and to the extent any of the preceding items (other than letters of credit and Hedging Obligations) would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of the specified Person prepared in accordance with GAAP. In addition, the term “Indebtedness” includes all Indebtedness of others secured by a Lien on any asset of the specified Person (whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by the specified Person) and, to the extent not otherwise included, the Guarantee by the specified Person of any indebtedness of any other Person.

The amount of any Indebtedness outstanding as of any date will be:

 

3


(1) the accreted value of the Indebtedness, in the case of any Indebtedness issued with original issue discount;

(2) the principal amount of the Indebtedness, together with any interest on the Indebtedness that is more than 30 days past due, in the case of any other Indebtedness; and

(3) with respect to Hedging Obligations, the amount of Indebtedness required to be recorded as a liability in accordance with GAAP.

“Indenture” means this instrument as amended and supplemented from time to time by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, and shall include the terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.02; provided, however, that, if at any time more than one Person is acting as Trustee under this instrument, “Indenture” shall mean, with respect to any one or more Series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee, this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of the or those particular Series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee established as contemplated by Section 2.02, exclusive, however, of any provisions or terms which relate solely to other Series of Securities for which such Person is not Trustee, regardless of when such terms or provisions were adopted, and exclusive of any provisions or terms adopted by means of one or more indentures supplemental hereto executed and delivered after such Person had become Trustee but to which such Person, as such Trustee, was not a party.

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

“Legal Holiday” means a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in the City of New York or in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania or at a place of payment are authorized by law, regulation or executive order to remain closed. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue on such payment for the intervening period.

Lien” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind in respect of such asset, whether or not filed, recorded or otherwise perfected under applicable law, including any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any lease in the nature thereof, any option or other agreement to sell or give a security interest in and any filing of or agreement to give any financing statement under the Uniform Commercial Code (or equivalent statutes) of any jurisdiction.

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.

“Obligations” means any principal, interest, penalties, fees, indemnifications, reimbursements, damages and other liabilities payable under the documentation governing any Indebtedness.

“Officer” means, with respect to any Person, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Controller, the Secretary, any Assistant Secretary or any Vice-President of such Person.

 

4


“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company, one of whom must be the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer, the treasurer or the principal accounting officer of the Company, that meets the requirements of Sections 12.04 and 12.05 hereof.

“Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion from legal counsel who is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, that meets the requirements of Sections 12.04 and 12.05 hereof. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company, any Subsidiary of the Company or the Trustee.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, limited liability company or government or other entity.

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Security Guarantee” means the guarantee of any Series of Securities by a Guarantor under Article 10.

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

“Significant Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1–02 of Regulation S–X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Regulation is in effect on the date of this Indenture.

Stated Maturity” means, with respect to any installment of interest or principal on any series of Indebtedness, the date on which such payment of interest or principal was scheduled to be paid in the original documentation governing such Indebtedness, and shall not include any contingent obligations to repay, redeem or repurchase any such interest or principal prior to the date originally scheduled for the payment thereof.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any specified Person:

(1) any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees of the corporation, association or other business entity is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by that Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person (or a combination thereof); and

 

5


(2) any partnership (a) the sole general partner or the managing general partner of which is such Person or a Subsidiary of such Person or (b) the only general partners of which are that Person or one or more Subsidiaries of that Person (or any combination thereof).

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S.C. §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date on which this Indenture is qualified under the TIA; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as so amended.

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “trustee” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder; provided, however, that if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of or within any Series shall mean only the Trustee with respect to the Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Legal Tender” means such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment shall be legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

“Voting Stock” of any Person as of any date means the Capital Stock of such Person that is at the time entitled to vote in the election of the board of directors of such Person.

Section 1.02 Other Definitions

 

Term

   Defined in
Section
 

“Covenant Defeasance”

     8.03  

“Event of Default”

     6.01  

“Legal Defeasance”

     8.02  

“Paying Agent”

     2.04  

“Registrar”

     2.04  

Section 1.03 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture.

The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“indenture securities” means the Securities;

“indenture security Holder” means a Holder of a Security;

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture;

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee; and

“obligor” on the Securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA have the meanings so assigned to them.

 

6


Section 1.04 Rules of Construction

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(2) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(3) “or” is not exclusive;

(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(5) “will” shall be interpreted to express a command;

(6) provisions apply to successive events and transactions; and

(7) references to sections of or rules under the Securities Act will be deemed to include substitute, replacement of successor sections or rules adopted by the SEC from time to time.

ARTICLE 2.

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Issuable in Series

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. All Series of Securities shall be entitled to the benefits of the Indenture, provided that Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters as provided by the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution.

Section 2.02 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.02(a) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.02(b) through 2.02(dd)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(a) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

(b) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

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(c) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.07, 2.08, 2.11, 3.06 or 9.05);

(d) the date or dates or the method by which such date or dates will be determined on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(e) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates, at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months;

(f) the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

(g) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(h) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(i) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

(j) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(k) the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

(l) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02;

(m) if other than United States dollars, the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series;

(n) if other than United States dollars, the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

(o) if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

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(p) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

(q) the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

(r) the ranking of the Securities of the Series (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

(s) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;

(t) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

(u) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the TIA or the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 9.01, but which may add to, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series);

(v) any trustees, depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein; and

(w) the date as of which any temporary Global Security representing Outstanding Securities of or within the Series shall be dated if other than the date of original issuance of the first Security of the Series to be issued;

(x) the applicability, if any, of Sections 8.02 and/or 8.03 to the Securities of or within the Series and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Article Eight;

(y) if the Securities of such Series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such Series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and/or terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

(z) if the Securities of or within the Series are to be issued upon the exercise of debt warrants, the time, manner and place for such Securities to be authenticated and delivered;

(aa) whether and under what circumstances the Company will pay Additional Amounts on the Securities of or within the Series to any Holder who is not a United States person (including any modification to the definition of such term) in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such Additional Amounts (and the terms of any such option);

(bb) the obligation, if any, of the Company to permit the Securities of such Series to be converted into or exchanged for common stock of the Company or other Securities or property of the Company and the terms and conditions upon which such conversion or exchange shall be effected (including, without limitation, the initial conversion or exchange price or rate, the conversion or exchange period, any adjustment of the applicable conversion or exchange price or rate and any requirements relative to the reservation of such shares for purposes of conversion or exchange);

 

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(cc) if convertible or exchangeable, any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of the Securities or property into which such Securities are convertible or exchangeable; and

(dd) the applicability, if any, of Article 10 or the Security Guarantee to the Securities of or within the Series and any provisions in modification, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Article 10 or any Security Guarantee, including the ranking of any Security Guarantee and the terms of any subordination provisions.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, and the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, including the ranking of any Security Guarantee and the terms of any subordination provisions.

Section 2.03 Execution and Authentication

An Officer must sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time a Security is authenticated, the Security will nevertheless be valid.

A Security will not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee. The signature will be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities of a Series for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate described in Section 2.02 with respect to such Series upon receipt by the Trustee of an Authentication Order. Such Authentication Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate described in Section 2.02 with respect to such Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.08.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 12.04 and stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the authentication and delivery of Securities of such Series have been complied with, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 12.04 and stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the authentication and delivery of Securities of such Series have been complied with.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

 

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The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with Holders or an Affiliate of the Company.

Section 2.04 Registrar and Paying Agent The Company will maintain with respect to each Series of Securities at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02 an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”) and an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”). The Registrar will keep a register of the Securities of such Series and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may appoint one or more co-registrars and one or more additional paying agents. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company may change any Paying Agent or Registrar without notice to any Holder. The Company will notify the Trustee in writing of the name and address of any Agent not a party to this Indenture. If the Company fails to appoint or maintain another entity as Registrar or Paying Agent, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company or any of its Subsidiaries may act as Paying Agent or Registrar.

If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

Section 2.05 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust

The Company will require each Paying Agent (other than the Trustee) to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities for which it is acting as Paying Agent, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest on such Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require the Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary) will have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary acts as Paying Agent, it will segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities for which it acts as Paying Agent all money held by it as Paying Agent for such Series. Upon any bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings relating to the Company, the Trustee will serve as Paying Agent for each Series of Securities.

Section 2.06 Holder Lists

The Trustee will preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of all Holders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company will furnish to the Trustee at

 

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least seven Business Days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of each Series of Securities and the Company shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a).

Section 2.07 Transfer and Exchange Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.06 or 9.05).

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

Section 2.08 Replacement Securities

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee or the Company and the Trustee receives evidence to its satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security, the Company will issue and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Authentication Order, will authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series if the Trustee’s requirements are met. If required by the Trustee or the Company, an affidavit of loss and indemnity bond must be supplied by the Holder that is sufficient in the judgment of the Trustee and the Company to protect the Company, the Trustee, any Agent and any authenticating agent from any loss that any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge for its expenses in replacing a Security.

Every replacement Security is an additional obligation of the Company and will be entitled to all of the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with all other Securities of the same Series duly issued hereunder.

Section 2.09 Outstanding Securities

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest in a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof, and those described in this Section 2.09 as not outstanding. Except as set forth in Section 2.10 hereof, a Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08 hereof, it ceases to be outstanding unless the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a protected purchaser.

If the principal amount of any Security is considered paid under Section 4.01 hereof, it ceases to be outstanding and interest on it ceases to accrue.

 

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If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary or an Affiliate of any thereof) holds, on a redemption date or maturity date, money sufficient to pay Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities will be deemed to be no longer outstanding and will cease to accrue interest.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

Section 2.10 Treasury Securities

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, Securities of such Series owned by the Company, or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company, will be considered as though not outstanding, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee will be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series that the Trustee knows are so owned will be so disregarded.

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities

Until certificates representing Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Authentication Order, will authenticate temporary Securities. Temporary Securities will be substantially in the form of certificated Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities and as may be reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. Without unreasonable delay, the Company will prepare and the Trustee will authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. After preparation of such definitive Securities, the temporary Securities will be exchangeable for such definitive Securities upon surrender of the temporary Securities.

Holders of temporary Securities will be entitled to all of the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.12 Cancellation

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and Paying Agent will forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee and no one else will cancel all Securities surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and will destroy canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirements of the Exchange Act). Certification of the destruction of all canceled Securities will be delivered to the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or that have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities of a Series, it will pay the defaulted interest in any lawful manner plus, to the extent lawful, interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the Persons who are Holders of the Securities of such Series on a subsequent special record date, in each case at the rate provided in such Series of Securities and in Section 4.01 hereof. The Company will notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of defaulted interest proposed to be paid on each Security of such Series and the date of the proposed payment. The Company will fix or cause to be

 

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fixed each such special record date and payment date, provided that no such special record date may be less than 10 days prior to the related payment date for such defaulted interest. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company (or, upon the written request of the Company, the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company) will mail or cause to be mailed to Holders of Securities of such Series a notice that states the special record date, the related payment date and the amount of such interest to be paid.

Section 2.14 Global Securities

(a) Terms of Securities. The Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate described in Section 2.02 with respect to a Series shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

(b) Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities of the Series with respect to which such Global Security was issued registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary within 90 days of such event, (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (iii) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

Except as provided in this Section 2.14(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

(c) Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depositary or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary, by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.”

(d) Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

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(e) Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

(f) Consents, Declaration and Directions. Except as provided in Section 2.14(e), the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

ARTICLE 3.

REDEMPTION AND PREPAYMENT

Section 3.01 Notices to Trustee

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate described in Section 2.02 with respect to such Series. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it must furnish to the Trustee, at least 45 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, an Officers’ Certificate setting forth:

(1) the term of the applicable Series of Securities pursuant to which the redemption shall occur;

(2) the redemption date;

(3) the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed; and

(4) the redemption price.

Section 3.02 Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed or Purchased

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if less than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed or purchased in an offer to purchase at any time, the Trustee will select Securities of such Series for redemption or purchase as follows:

 

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(1) if the Securities of such Series are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange on which the Securities of such Series are listed; or

(2) if the Securities of such Series are not listed on any national securities exchange, on a pro rata basis (based on amounts tendered), by lot or by such method as the Trustee shall deem fair and appropriate.

In the event of partial redemption or purchase by lot, the Securities of a Series to be redeemed or purchased will be selected, unless otherwise provided herein, not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the redemption or purchase date by the Trustee from the outstanding Securities of such Series not previously called for redemption or purchase.

The Trustee will promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption or purchase and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption or purchase, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed or purchased. Securities and portions of Securities selected will be in amounts of the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of that Series or integral multiples thereof; except that if all of the Series of Securities of a Holder are to be redeemed or purchased, the entire outstanding amount of such Securities held by such Holder, even if not an integral multiple of the minimum authorized denomination, shall be redeemed or purchased. Except as provided in the preceding sentence, provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption or purchase also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption or purchase.

Section 3.03 Notice of Redemption

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company will mail or cause to be mailed, by first class mail, a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed at its registered address, except that redemption notices may be mailed more than 60 days prior to a redemption date if the notice is issued in connection with a defeasance of the Securities or a satisfaction and discharge of such Securities and this Indenture pursuant to Articles 8 or 11 of this Indenture.

The notice will identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and will state:

(1) the redemption date;

(2) the redemption price;

(3) if any Security of the Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued upon cancellation of the original Security;

(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(5) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

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(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making such redemption payment, interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;

(7) the Section of the Securities of the Series and/or Section of this Indenture applicable to such Series pursuant to which the Securities of the Series called for redemption are being redeemed; and

(8) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities of the Series.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee will give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense; provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 45 days prior to the redemption date, an Officers’ Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice as provided in the preceding paragraph.

Section 3.04 Effect of Notice of Redemption

Once notice of redemption is mailed in accordance with Section 3.03 hereof, Securities of a Series called for redemption become irrevocably due and payable on the redemption date at the redemption price. A notice of redemption may not be conditional.

Section 3.05 Deposit of Redemption or Purchase Price

Prior to 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the relevant redemption or purchase date, the Company will deposit with the Trustee or with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption or purchase price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed or purchased on that date. The Trustee or the Paying Agent will promptly return to the Company any money deposited with the Trustee or the Paying Agent by the Company in excess of the amounts necessary to pay the redemption or purchase price of, and accrued interest, if any, on, all Securities to be redeemed or purchased.

If the Company complies with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, on and after the redemption or purchase date, interest will cease to accrue on the Securities or the portions of Securities called for redemption or purchase. If a Security is redeemed or purchased on or after an interest record date but on or prior to the related interest payment date, then any accrued and unpaid interest shall be paid to the Person in whose name such Security was registered at the close of business on such record date. If any Security called for redemption or purchase is not so paid upon surrender for redemption or purchase because of the failure of the Company to comply with the preceding paragraph, interest shall be paid on the unpaid principal, from the redemption or purchase date until such principal is paid, and to the extent lawful on any interest not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case at the rate provided in the Securities and in Section 4.01 hereof.

Section 3.06 Securities Redeemed or Purchased in Part

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed or purchased in part, the Company will issue and, upon receipt of an Authentication Order, the Trustee will authenticate for the Holder at the expense of the Company a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed or unpurchased portion of the Security surrendered.

 

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ARTICLE 4.

COVENANTS

Section 4.01 Payment of Securities

The Company will pay or cause to be paid the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, on each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided for the Securities of such Series by the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series. Principal, premium, if any, and interest will be considered paid on the date due if the Paying Agent, if other than the Company or a Subsidiary thereof, holds as of 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time on the due date money deposited by the Company in immediately available funds in U.S. Legal Tender and designated for and sufficient to pay all principal, premium, if any, and interest then due. If the Company or Subsidiary is acting as Paying Agent, the Company shall, prior to 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the due date, segregate and hold in trust U.S. Legal Tender sufficient to make payments of principal, premium and interest due on such date.

Unless otherwise indicated for a Series of Securities in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate described in Section 2.02, the Company will pay interest (including post-petition interest in any proceeding under any Bankruptcy Law) on overdue principal, and on overdue installments of interest (without regard to any applicable grace period), at the rate equal to 1% per annum in excess of the then applicable interest rate on each Series of Securities to the extent lawful. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Indenture, the Company may, to the extent it is required to do so by law, deduct or withhold income or other similar taxes imposed by the United States of America from principal or interest payments hereunder.

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency

The Company will maintain in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, an office or agency (which may be an office of the Trustee, being [ ], located at [ ], or an affiliate of the Trustee, Registrar or co-registrar) where Securities of each Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of Securities of each Series and this Indenture may be served. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company fails to maintain any such required office or agency or fails to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of each Series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however , that no such designation or rescission will in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

The Company hereby designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as one such office or agency of the Company in accordance with Section 2.04 hereof.

 

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Section 4.03 Reports (a) Whether or not required by the rules and regulations of the SEC, so long as Securities of any Series are outstanding, the Company will file a copy of all of the information and reports referred to in clauses (1) and (2) below with the SEC for public availability within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and regulations:

(1) all quarterly and annual financial information that would be required to be contained in a filing with the SEC on Forms 10-Q and 10-K if the Company were required to file such forms, and, with respect to the annual information only, a report thereon by the Company’s certified independent accountants; and

(2) all current reports that would be required to be filed with the SEC on Form 8-K if the Company were required to file such reports.

If the SEC will not accept a filing referred to above, then the Company will furnish such information and reports to the Trustee and Holders within 15 days of the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and regulations, and make such information available to prospective investors upon request. The Company will at all times comply with TIA § 314(a).

(b) The Trustee shall not be under a duty to review or evaluate any report or information delivered to the Trustee pursuant to the provisions of this Section 4.03 for the purposes of making such reports available to it and to the Holders of Securities of any Series who may request such information. Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee as may be required under this Section 4.03 is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).

Section 4.04 Compliance Certificate

(a) The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 90 days after the end of each fiscal year, an Officers’ Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to his or her knowledge after due inquiry the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (or, if a Default or Event of Default has occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to his or her knowledge after due inquiry no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of any Series is prohibited or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

(b) So long as any of the Securities of any Series are outstanding, the Company will deliver to the Trustee, promptly upon any Officer becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officers’ Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

Section 4.05 Taxes

The Company will pay, and will cause each of its Subsidiaries to pay, prior to delinquency, all material taxes, assessments, and governmental levies except such as are contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings or where the failure to effect such payment is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders of the Securities of any Series.

 

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Section 4.06 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, that may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

Section 4.07 Corporate Existence

Subject to Article 5 hereof, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect:

(1) its corporate existence, and the corporate, partnership or other existence of each of its Subsidiaries, in accordance with the respective organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company or any such Subsidiary; and

(2) the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company and its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or the corporate, partnership or other existence of any of its Subsidiaries, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders of the Securities of any Series.

ARTICLE 5.

SUCCESSORS

Section 5.01 Merger, Consolidation, or Sale of Assets

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any Person (a “Successor Person”), and may not permit any Person to merge into, or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to, the Company, unless:

(1) the Successor Person (if any) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture and

(2) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officers’ Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

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Section 5.02 Successor Person Substituted

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, assignment, transfer, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in a transaction that is subject to, and that complies with the provisions of, Section 5.01 hereof, the Successor Person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such consolidation, merger, sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition, the provisions of this Indenture referring to the “Company” shall refer instead to the Successor Person and not to the Company), and may exercise every right and power of the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such Successor Person had been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company shall not be relieved from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest on the Securities except in the case of a sale of all of the Company’s assets in a transaction that is subject to, and that complies with the provisions of, Section 5.01 hereof.

ARTICLE 6.

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.01 Events of Default

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, subject to any modifications, deletions or additions relating to any Series of Securities, as provided in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate for such Series:

(1) the Company defaults for 30 days in the payment when due of interest on, any Security of that Series;

(2) the Company defaults in the payment when due (at Maturity) of the principal of, or premium, if any, on any Security of that Series;

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other covenant, representation, warranty or other agreement in this Indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of Series of Securities other than that Series) or the Securities of that Series for 60 consecutive days after notice to the Company by the Trustee or the Holders of Securities of that Series of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such Securities then outstanding voting as a single class;

(4) a default occurs under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any Indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (or the payment of which is guaranteed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries), whether such Indebtedness or guarantee now exists, or is created after the date of this Indenture, if that default:

(A) is caused by a failure to pay principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on such Indebtedness prior to the expiration of the grace period provided in such Indebtedness on the date of such default (a “Payment Default”); or

(B) results in the acceleration of such Indebtedness prior to its express maturity, and, in each case, the principal amount of any such Indebtedness, together with the principal amount of any other such Indebtedness under which there has been a Payment Default or the maturity of which has been so accelerated, aggregates $25.0 million or more;

 

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(5) the Company or any Subsidiary that is a Significant Subsidiary or any group of Subsidiaries that, taken as a whole, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of Bankruptcy Law:

(A) commences a voluntary case,

(B) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(C) consents to the appointment of a custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(D) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(E) generally is not paying its debts as they become due; or

(6) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(A) is for relief against the Company or any of its Significant Subsidiaries or any group of Subsidiaries that, taken as a whole, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;

(B) appoints a custodian of the Company or any of its Significant Subsidiaries or any group of Subsidiaries that, taken as a whole, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any of its Significant Subsidiaries or any group of Subsidiaries that, taken as a whole, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary; or

(C) orders the liquidation of the Company or any of its Significant Subsidiaries or any group of Subsidiaries that, taken as a whole, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary;

and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 consecutive days; or

(7) any other Event of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(s).

Section 6.02 Acceleration

In the case of an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding specified in clause (5) or (6) of Section 6.01 hereof, with respect to the Company, any Subsidiary that is a Significant Subsidiary or any group of Subsidiaries that, taken as a whole, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary, all outstanding Securities of such Series shall become due and payable immediately without further action or notice. If any other Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee or the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series may declare all the Securities of such Series to be due and payable immediately.

 

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Upon any such declaration, the Securities of such Series shall become due and payable immediately. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series by written notice to the Trustee may on behalf of all of the Holders of Securities of such Series rescind an acceleration and its consequences if the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree and if all existing Events of Default with respect to Securities of such Series (except nonpayment of principal, interest or premium that has become due solely because of the acceleration) have been cured or waived.

Section 6.03 Other Remedies

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue any available remedy to collect the payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on the Securities of such Series or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of such Series or this Indenture.

The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of such Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Holder of a Security of any Series in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default with respect to Securities of such Series shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in such Event of Default. All remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.

Section 6.04 Waiver of Past Defaults

Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of a Series by notice to the Trustee may on behalf of the Holders of all of the Securities of such Series waive an existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series and its consequences hereunder, except a continuing Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on, the Securities of such Series (including in connection with any offer to purchase); provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration. Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.05 Control by Majority

Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of a Series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on it with respect to the Securities of such Series. However, the Trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture that the Trustee determines may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of other Holders of Securities of such Series or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability. The Trustee shall be entitled to take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction or this Indenture.

 

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Section 6.06 Limitation on Suits

A Holder of a Security of any Series may pursue a remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of that Series only if:

(1) such Holder of a Security of that Series has previously given to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to Securities of that Series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that Series make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

(3) such Holder of a Security of that Series or Holders of Securities of that Series offer and, if requested, provide to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense;

(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer and, if requested, the provision of indemnity; and

(5) during such 60-day period the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that Series do not give the Trustee a written direction inconsistent with the request.

A Holder of a Security may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Holder of a Security of the same Series or to obtain a preference or priority over another Holder of a Security of the same Series.

Section 6.07 Rights of Holders of Securities to Receive Payment

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of any Series to receive payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on a Security of that Series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of that Series (including in connection with an offer to purchase), or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.08 Collection Suit by Trustee

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series specified in Section 6.01(1) or (2) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee is authorized to recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company for the whole amount of principal of, premium, if any, and interest remaining unpaid on the Securities of that Series and interest on overdue principal and, to the extent lawful, interest and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

Section 6.09 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

The Trustee is authorized to file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Holders of the Securities of any Series allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities of any Series), its creditors or its property and shall be entitled and

 

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empowered to collect, receive and distribute any money or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07 hereof. To the extent that the payment of any such compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07 hereof out of the estate in any such proceeding, shall be denied for any reason, payment of the same shall be secured by a Lien on, and shall be paid out of, any and all distributions, dividends, money, securities and other properties that the Holders may be entitled to receive in such proceeding whether in liquidation or under any plan of reorganization or arrangement or otherwise. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any Series or the rights of any Holder, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.10 Priorities

If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this Article 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:

First: to the Trustee, its agents and attorneys for amounts due under Section 7.07 hereof, including payment of all compensation, expense and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and the costs and expenses of collection;

Second: to Holders of Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected for amounts due and unpaid on such Securities for principal, premium, if any, and interest, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal, premium, if any and interest, respectively; and

Third: to the Company or to such party as a court of competent jurisdiction shall direct.

The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Holders of Securities pursuant to this Section 6.10.

Section 6.11 Undertaking for Costs

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as a Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder of a Security pursuant to Section 6.07 hereof, or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of any Series.

 

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ARTICLE 7.

TRUSTEE

Section 7.01 Duties of Trustee

(a) If an Event of Default with respect to any Series of Securities has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee will exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default with respect to any Series of Securities:

(1) the duties of the Trustee will be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture and the Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(2) in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture. However, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee will examine the certificates and opinions to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liabilities for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) this paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.01;

(2) the Trustee will not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts; and

(3) the Trustee will not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Section 6.05 hereof.

(d) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this Section 7.01.

(e) No provision of this Indenture will require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or incur any liability. The Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights and powers under this Indenture at the request of any Holders of a Series of Securities, unless such Holders have offered to the Trustee security and indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.

(f) The Trustee will not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

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Section 7.02 Rights of Trustee

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely upon any document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(b) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee will not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel. The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel will be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.

(c) The Trustee may act through its attorneys and agents and will not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care.

(d) The Trustee will not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith that it believes to be authorized or within the rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture.

(e) Unless otherwise specifically provided in this Indenture, any demand, request, direction or notice from the Company will be sufficient if signed by an Officer of the Company.

(f) The Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of a Series of Securities unless such Holders have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

(g) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default with respect to any Series of Securities unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a Default or Event of Default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Series Securities governed by this Indenture with respect to which such Default or Event of Default relates.

(h) The rights, privileges, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee hereunder, including without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and to each agent, custodian and other Person employed by the Trustee consistent with the terms of this Indenture to act hereunder.

(i) Any permissive right or authority granted to the Trustee shall not be construed as a mandatory duty.

Section 7.03 Individual Rights of Trustee

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities of any Series and may otherwise deal with the Company or any Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. However, in the event that the Trustee acquires any conflicting interest, as described in the TIA, it must eliminate such conflict within 90 days, apply to the SEC for permission to continue as Trustee or resign. Any Agent may do the same with like rights and duties. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11 hereof.

 

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Section 7.04 Trustee’s Disclaimer

The Trustee will not be responsible for and makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities of any Series, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities of any Series or any money paid to the Company or upon the Company’s direction under any provision of this Indenture, it will not be responsible for the use or application of any money received by any Paying Agent other than the Trustee, and it will not be responsible for any statement or recital herein or any statement in the Securities of any Series or any other document in connection with the sale of the Securities of any Series or pursuant to this Indenture other than its certificate of authentication.

Section 7.05 Notice of Defaults

If a Default or Event of Default with respect to any Series of Securities of such Series occurs and is continuing and if it is known to the Trustee, the Trustee will mail to Holders of Securities of such Series a notice of the Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on a Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as a committee of its Responsible Officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Holders of the Securities of such Series.

Section 7.06 Reports by Trustee to Holders of the Securities

(a) Within 60 days after each [ ] beginning with the [ ] following the date of this Indenture, and for so long as Securities of any Series remain outstanding, the Trustee will mail to the Holders of the Securities of such Series a brief report dated as of such reporting date that complies with TIA § 313(a) (but if no event described in TIA § 313(a) has occurred within the twelve months preceding the reporting date, no report need be transmitted). The Trustee also will comply with TIA § 313(b)(2). The Trustee will also transmit by mail all reports as required by TIA § 313(c).

(b) A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to the Holders of Securities of any Series will be mailed by the Trustee to the Company and filed by the Trustee with the SEC and each stock exchange on which the Securities of such Series are listed in accordance with TIA § 313(d). The Company will promptly notify the Trustee when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange.

Section 7.07 Compensation and Indemnity

(a) The Company will pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for its acceptance of this Indenture and services hereunder as the Company and Trustee shall from time to time agree in writing. The Trustee’s compensation will not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company will reimburse the Trustee promptly upon request for all reasonable disbursements, advances and expenses incurred or made by it in addition to the compensation for its services. Such expenses will include the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

(b) The Company shall indemnify the Trustee against any and all losses, liabilities or expenses incurred by it arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of its duties under this Indenture, including the costs and expenses of enforcing this Indenture against the Company (including this Section 7.07) and defending itself against any claim (whether asserted by the Company or any Holder or any other Person) or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its

 

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powers or duties hereunder, except to the extent any such loss, liability or expense may be attributable to its negligence or bad faith or willful misconduct. The Trustee will notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company will not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder. The Company will defend the claim and the Trustee will cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company will pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld.

(c) The obligations of the Company under this Section 7.07 will survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.

(d) To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section 7.07, the Trustee will have a Lien prior to the Securities of each Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal and interest on particular Securities of a Series. Such Lien will survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.

(e) When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(5) or (6) hereof occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services (including the fees and expenses of its agents and counsel) are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

(f) The Trustee will comply with the provisions of TIA § 313(b)(2) to the extent applicable.

Section 7.08 Replacement of Trustee

(a) A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series will become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section 7.08.

(b) The Trustee may resign in writing at any time and be discharged from the trust hereby created by so notifying the Company. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of a Series may remove the Trustee with respect to such Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company in writing. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series if:

(1) the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10 hereof;

(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(3) a custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(4) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

(c) If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, the Company will promptly appoint a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those Series (it being understood that any such successor Trustee may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such Series and that at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any Series). Within one year after a successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of a Series may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to such Series to replace the successor Trustee for such Series appointed by the Company.

 

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(d) If a successor Trustee for a Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee for such Series resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company, or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to such Series.

(e) If the Trustee for a Series, after written request by any Holder of Securities of such Series who has been a Holder of Securities of such Series for at least six months, fails with respect to such Series to comply with Section 7.10, such Holder may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee for such Series and the appointment of a successor Trustee for such Series.

(f) A successor Trustee will deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Thereupon, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee will become effective, and the successor Trustee will have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. The successor Trustee will mail a notice of its succession to Holders of each Series of Securities for which it acts as Trustee. The retiring Trustee will promptly transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee, provided all sums owing to the Trustee hereunder have been paid and subject to the Lien provided for in Section 7.07 hereof. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 hereof will continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee.

Section 7.09 Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.

If the Trustee consolidates, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act will be the successor Trustee.

Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification

There will at all times be a Trustee hereunder that is a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or of any state thereof that is authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trustee power, that is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities and that has a combined capital and surplus of at least $100 million as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition.

This Indenture will always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA § 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee is subject to TIA § 310(b).

Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company

The Trustee is subject to TIA § 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA § 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA § 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.

 

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ARTICLE 8.

LEGAL DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

Section 8.01 Option to Effect Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance

If, pursuant to Section 2.02, provision is made for either or both of (a) defeasance of the Securities of or within a Series under Section 8.02 or (b) covenant defeasance of the Securities of or within a Series under Section 8.03 to be applicable to the Securities of a Series, then the provisions of such Section or Sections, as the case may be, together with the other provisions of this Article (with such modifications thereto as may be specified pursuant to Section 2.02 with respect to the Securities of such Series), shall be applicable to the Securities of such Series, and the Company may, at the option of the Board of Directors evidenced by a resolution set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, at any time, elect to have either Section 8.02 or 8.03 hereof be applied to all outstanding Securities of such Series upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Article 8.

Section 8.02 Legal Defeasance and Discharge

Upon the Company’s exercise under Section 8.01 hereof of the option applicable to this Section 8.02, the Company shall, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Section 8.04 hereof, be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to all outstanding Securities of a Series on the date the conditions set forth below are satisfied with respect to the Securities of such Series (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, Legal Defeasance means that the Company will be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Indebtedness represented by the outstanding Securities of such Series, which will thereafter be deemed to be “outstanding” only for the purposes of Section 8.05 hereof and the other Sections of this Indenture referred to in clauses (1) and (2) below, and to have satisfied all their other obligations under the Securities of such Series and this Indenture (and the Trustee, on demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except for the following provisions which will survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder:

(1) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities of such Series to receive payments in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on such Securities when such payments are due from the trust referred to in Section 8.04 hereof;

(2) the Company’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such Series under Article 2 and Section 4.02 hereof;

(3) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith; and

(4) this Article 8.

Subject to compliance with this Article 8, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 8.02 with respect to Securities of a Series notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 8.03 hereof with respect to Securities of such Series.

Section 8.03 Covenant Defeasance

Upon the Company’s exercise under Section 8.01 hereof of the option applicable to this Section 8.03, the Company shall, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Section 8.04 hereof, be released from each of their obligations under the covenants contained in Sections 4.3 and 4.4, as well as

 

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any additional covenants contained in a supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series of Securities, with respect to the outstanding Securities of a Series on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 8.04 hereof are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”), and the Securities of such Series shall thereafter be deemed not “outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration or act of Holders of Securities of such Series (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but will continue to be deemed “outstanding” for all other purposes hereunder (it being understood that the Securities of such Series will not be deemed outstanding for accounting purposes). For this purpose, Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such Series, the Company may omit to comply with and will have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of any reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to Securities of such Series under Section 6.01 hereof, but, except as specified above, the remainder of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series will be unaffected thereby. In addition, upon the Company’s exercise under Section 8.01 hereof of the option applicable to this Section 8.03 hereof, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Section 8.04 hereof, Sections 6.01(3) through 6.01(5) hereof will not constitute Events of Default.

Section 8.04 Conditions to Legal or Covenant Defeasance

In order to exercise either Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance under either Section 8.02 or 8.03 hereof:

(1) the Company must irrevocably deposit with the Trustee, in trust, for the benefit of the Holders of Securities of a Series, cash in such currency, currencies or currency units in which such Securities are then specified as payable at Stated Maturity, non-callable Government Securities, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the stated date for payment thereof or on the applicable redemption date, as the case may be, and the Company must specify whether the Securities of such Series are being defeased to maturity or to a particular redemption date;

(2) in the case of an election under Section 8.02 hereof, the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel in the United States reasonably acceptable to the Trustee confirming that:

(A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling; or

(B) since the date of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law,

in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

(3) in the case of an election under Section 8.03 hereof, the Company must deliver to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel in the United States reasonably acceptable to the Trustee

 

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confirming that the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

(4) no Default or Event of Default with respect to Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit (other than a Default or Event of Default with respect to Securities of such Series resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit);

(5) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other than this Indenture) with respect to such Securities to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound;

(6) the Company must deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders of Securities of such Series over the other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company or others; and

(7) the Company must deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for or relating to the Legal Defeasance or the Covenant Defeasance have been complied with.

Section 8.05 Deposited Money and Government Securities to be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions Subject to Section 8.06 hereof, all money and non-callable Government Securities (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee, collectively for purposes of this Section 8.05, the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 8.04 hereof in respect of the outstanding Securities of a Series will be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of the Securities of such Series of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, premium, if any, and interest, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

The Company will pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the cash or non-callable Government Securities deposited pursuant to Section 8.04 hereof or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of an outstanding Series of Securities.

Notwithstanding anything in this Article 8 to the contrary, the Trustee will deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon the request of the Company any money or non-callable Government Securities held by it as provided in Section 8.04 hereof which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee (which may be the opinion delivered under Section 8.04(1) hereof), are in excess of the amount thereof that would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

Section 8.06 Repayment to Company Any money deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or

 

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interest on any Series of Securities and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal, premium, if any, or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on its request or (if then held by the Company) will be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of Security of such Series will thereafter be permitted to look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, will thereupon cease; provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may at the expense of the Company cause to be published once, in The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal (national edition), notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which will not be less than 30 days from the date of such notification or publication, any unclaimed balance of such money then remaining will be repaid to the Company.

Section 8.07 Reinstatement If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any United States dollars or other currency or non-callable Government Securities in accordance with Section 8.02 or 8.03 hereof, as the case may be, by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and each applicable Series of Securities will be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.02 or 8.03 hereof until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.02 or 8.03 hereof, as the case may be; provided, however, that, if the Company makes any payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on any Series of Securities following the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company will be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Series of Securities to receive such payment from the money held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

ARTICLE 9.

AMENDMENT, SUPPLEMENT AND WAIVER

Section 9.01 Without Consent of Holders of Securities Notwithstanding Section 9.02 of this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or any Series of Securities without the consent of any Holder of Securities:

(1) to evidence the succession of another Person to the Company or a Guarantor and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants of the Company or such Guarantor herein, in any Security Guarantee and in the Securities contained; provided that such succession is otherwise in compliance with this Indenture and applicable law;

(2) to add to the covenants of the Company or any Guarantor for the benefit of the Holders of all or any Series of Securities (and, if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all Series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such Series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company or any Guarantor;

(3) to add any additional Events of Default for the benefit of the Holders of all or any Series of Securities (and if such Events of Default are to be for the benefit of less than all Series of Securities, stating that such Events of Default are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such Series); provided, however, that in respect of any such additional Events of Default such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of that or those Series of Securities to which such additional Events of Default apply to waive such default;

 

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(4) to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interest of the Holders of Securities of any Series in any material respect;

(5) to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture or any Guarantee in respect of any Series of Securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (i) neither (A) apply to any Security of any Series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision, nor (B) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision; or (ii) become effective only when there is no Security Outstanding;

(6) to secure the Securities of any Series;

(7) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any Series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.02, including the provisions and procedures relating to Securities convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property of the Company;

(8) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add or change any of the provisions of the Indenture or any Guarantee as shall be reasonable and necessary solely to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee; provided that such succession is otherwise in compliance with this Indenture and applicable law;

(9) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

(10) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities or to alter the provisions of Article 2 hereof (including the related definitions) in a manner that does not materially adversely affect any Holder of any Series of Securities;

(11) to provide for the assumption of the Company’s obligations to the Holders of each Series of Securities by a successor to the Company pursuant to Article 5 hereof;

(12) to make any change that would provide any additional rights or benefits to the Holders of each Series of Securities or that does not adversely affect the legal rights hereunder of any Holder of any Series of Securities; or

(13) to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA.

Upon the request of the Company accompanied by a resolution of the Board of Directors authorizing the execution of any such amended or supplemental indenture, and upon receipt by the Trustee of the documents described in Section 7.02 hereof, the Trustee will join with the Company in the execution of any amended or supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee will not be obligated to enter into such amended or supplemental indenture that affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Section 9.02 With Consent of Holders of Securities Except as provided below in this Section 9.02, the Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture and the Securities of an affected Series with the consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of such affected Series then outstanding, voting as a separate class, (including, without limitation, consents

 

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obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for, or purchase of, the Securities of each affected Series). Subject to Sections 6.04 and 6.07 hereof, any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to a Series of Securities (other than a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of such Series, except a payment default resulting from an acceleration that has been rescinded) or compliance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series may be waived with the consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series voting as a single class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for, or purchase of, the Securities of such Series). Section 2.08 hereof shall determine which Securities are considered to be “outstanding” for purposes of this Section 9.02.

Upon the request of the Company accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such amended or supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Holders of Securities of each required Series as aforesaid, and upon receipt by the Trustee of the documents described in Section 7.02 hereof, the Trustee will join with the Company in the execution of such amended or supplemental indenture unless such amended or supplemental indenture directly affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but will not be obligated to, enter into such amended or supplemental indenture.

It is not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities of any Series under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment or waiver, but it is sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment, supplement or waiver under this Section 9.02 becomes effective, the Company will mail to the Holders of Securities of each Series affected thereby a notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure of the Company to mail such notice, or any defect therein, will not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amended or supplemental indenture or waiver. Subject to Sections 6.04 and 6.07 hereof, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding voting as a single class may waive compliance in a particular instance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture with respect to such Series or such Series of Securities. However, without the consent of each Holder affected, an amendment or waiver under this Section 9.02 may not (with respect to any Securities held by a non-consenting Holder):

(1) reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

(2) reduce the principal of or change the fixed maturity of any Security or alter or waive any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of the Securities;

(3) reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest, including default interest, on any Security;

(4) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any Securities (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(5) make any Security payable in currency other than that stated in the Securities;

 

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(6) make any change in the provisions of this Indenture relating to waivers of past Defaults or the rights of Holders of Securities to receive payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on the Securities;

(7) waive a redemption payment, if any, with respect to any Securities or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities; or

(8) make any change in the foregoing amendment and waiver provisions.

Section 9.03 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act Every amendment or supplement to this Indenture or the Securities will be set forth in a amended or supplemental indenture that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

Section 9.04 Revocation and Effect of Consents Until an amendment, supplement or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder of a Security and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder of a Security or subsequent Holder of a Security may revoke the consent as to its Security if the Trustee receives written notice of revocation before the date the waiver, supplement or amendment becomes effective. An amendment, supplement or waiver becomes effective in accordance with its terms and thereafter binds every Holder.

Section 9.05 Notation on or Exchange of Securities The Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment, supplement or waiver on any Security thereafter authenticated. If the Company so determines, the Company in exchange for all Securities of a Series may issue and the Trustee shall, upon receipt of an Authentication Order, authenticate new Securities of such Series that reflect the amendment, supplement or waiver.

Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security will not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, supplement or waiver.

Section 9.06 Trustee to Sign Amendments, etc.

The Trustee will sign any amended or supplemental indenture authorized pursuant to this Article 9 if the amendment or supplement does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities or immunities of the Trustee. The Company may not sign an amendment or supplemental indenture until the Board of Directors approves it. In executing any amended or supplemental indenture, the Trustee will be entitled to receive and (subject to Section 7.01 hereof) will be fully protected in relying upon, in addition to the documents required by Section 12.04 hereof, an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such amended or supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture.

ARTICLE 10.

GUARANTEES

Section 10.01 Guarantees.

(a) If, pursuant to Section 2.02, provision is made for the Guarantee of the Securities of a Series, then subject to this Article 10, each of the Guarantors hereby, jointly and severally, unconditionally guarantees to each Holder of a Security of such Series authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and to the Trustee and its successors and assigns, irrespective of the validity and enforceability of

 

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this Indenture, the Securities of such Series or the obligations of the Company hereunder or thereunder, that:

(1) the principal of, premium, and interest on such Securities and any Additional Amounts will be promptly paid in full when due, whether at maturity, by acceleration, redemption or otherwise, and interest on the overdue principal of and interest on such Securities, if any, if lawful, and all other obligations of the Company to the Holders of Securities of such Series or the Trustee hereunder or thereunder will be promptly paid in full or performed, all in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof; and

(2) in case of any extension of time of payment or renewal of any such Securities or any of such other obligations, that same will be promptly paid in full when due or performed in accordance with the terms of the extension or renewal, whether at stated maturity, by acceleration or otherwise.

Failing payment when due of any amount so guaranteed or any performance so guaranteed for whatever reason, the Guarantors will be jointly and severally obligated to pay the same immediately. Each Guarantor agrees that this is a guarantee of payment and not a guarantee of collection.

(b) The Guarantors hereby agree that their obligations hereunder are unconditional, irrespective of the validity, regularity or enforceability of the Securities or this Indenture, the absence of any action to enforce the same, any waiver or consent by any Holder of the Securities with respect to any provisions hereof or thereof, the recovery of any judgment against the Company, any action to enforce the same or any other circumstance which might otherwise constitute a legal or equitable discharge or defense of a guarantor. Each Guarantor hereby waives diligence, presentment, demand of payment, filing of claims with a court in the event of insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company, any right to require a proceeding first against the Company, protest, notice and all demands whatsoever and covenant that the Security Guarantee will not be discharged except by complete performance of the obligations contained in such Securities and this Indenture.

(c) If any Holder or the Trustee is required by any court or otherwise to return to the Company, the Guarantors or any custodian, trustee, liquidator or other similar official acting in relation to either the Company or the Guarantors, any amount paid by either to the Trustee or such Holder, the Security Guarantee, to the extent theretofore discharged, will be reinstated in full force and effect.

(d) Each Guarantor agrees that it will not be entitled to any right of subrogation in relation to the Holders in respect of any obligations guaranteed hereby until payment in full of all obligations guaranteed hereby. Each Guarantor further agrees that, as between the Guarantors, on the one hand, and the Holders and the Trustee, on the other hand, (1) the maturity of the obligations guaranteed hereby may be accelerated as provided in Article 6 hereof for the purposes of the Security Guarantee, notwithstanding any stay, injunction or other prohibition preventing such acceleration in respect of the obligations guaranteed hereby, and (2) in the event of any declaration of acceleration of such obligations as provided in Article 6 hereof, such obligations (whether or not due and payable) will forthwith become due and payable by the Guarantors for the purpose of the Security Guarantee. The Guarantors will have the right to seek contribution from any non-paying Guarantor so long as the exercise of such right does not impair the rights of the Holders under the Security Guarantee.

Section 10.02 Limitation on Guarantor Liability.

Each Guarantor, and by its acceptance of Securities, each Holder, hereby confirms that it is the intention of all such parties that the Security Guarantee of such Guarantor not constitute a fraudulent

 

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transfer or conveyance for purposes of Bankruptcy Law, the Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act, the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act or any similar federal or state law to the extent applicable to any Security Guarantee. To effectuate the foregoing intention, the Trustee, the Holders and the Guarantors hereby irrevocably agree that the obligations of such Guarantor under its Security Guarantee and this Article 10 shall be limited to the maximum amount as will, after giving effect to such maximum amount and all other contingent and fixed liabilities of such Guarantor that are relevant under such laws, and after giving effect to any collections from, rights to receive contribution from or payments made by or on behalf of any other Guarantor in respect of the obligations of such other Guarantor under this Article 10, result in the obligations of such Guarantor under its Security Guarantee not constituting a fraudulent transfer or conveyance.

Section 10.03 Execution and Delivery of Security Guarantee.

To evidence its Security Guarantee set forth in Section 10.01, each Guarantor hereby agrees that a notation of such Security Guarantee will be endorsed by an Officer of such Guarantor on each Security of a guaranteed Series authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and that this Indenture will be executed on behalf of such Guarantor by one of its Officers.

Each Guarantor hereby agrees that its Security Guarantee set forth in Section 10.01 will remain in full force and effect notwithstanding any failure to endorse on each Security of a guaranteed Series a notation of such Security Guarantee.

If an Officer whose signature is on this Indenture or on the Security Guarantee no longer holds that office at the time the Trustee authenticates the Security on which a Security Guarantee is endorsed, the Security Guarantee will be valid nevertheless.

The delivery of any Security of a guaranteed Series by the Trustee, after the authentication thereof hereunder, will constitute due delivery of the Security Guarantee set forth in this Indenture on behalf of the Guarantors.

Section 10.04 Guarantors May Consolidate, etc., on Certain Terms.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 10.05, no Guarantor may sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets to, or consolidate with or merge with or into (whether or not such Guarantor is the surviving Person) another Person, other than the Company or another Guarantor, unless:

(1) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Default or Event of Default exists; and

(2) subject to Section 10.05 hereof, the Person acquiring the property in any such sale or disposition or the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger unconditionally assumes all the obligations of that Guarantor, pursuant to a supplemental indenture in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, under the Securities of a guaranteed Series, this Indenture and the Security Guarantee on the terms set forth herein or therein.

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance and upon the assumption by the successor Person, by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the Security Guarantee endorsed upon the Securities of a guaranteed Series and the due and punctual performance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture to be performed by the Guarantor, such successor Person will succeed to and be substituted for the Guarantor with the same

 

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effect as if it had been named herein as a Guarantor. Such successor Person thereupon may cause to be signed any or all of the Security Guarantees to be endorsed upon all of the Securities of a guaranteed Series issuable hereunder which theretofore shall not have been signed by the Company and delivered to the Trustee. All the Security Guarantees so issued will in all respects have the same legal rank and benefit under this Indenture as the Security Guarantees theretofore and thereafter issued in accordance with the terms of this Indenture as though all of such Security Guarantees had been issued at the date of the execution hereof.

Except as set forth in Articles 4 and 5 hereof, nothing contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities will prevent any consolidation or merger of a Guarantor with or into the Company or another Guarantor, or will prevent any sale or conveyance of the property of a Guarantor as an entirety or substantially as an entirety to the Company or another Guarantor.

Section 10.05 Releases Following Sale of Assets.

In the event of any sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of any Guarantor, by way of merger, consolidation or otherwise, or a sale or other disposition of all to the Capital Stock of any Guarantor, in each case to a Person that is not (either before or after giving effect to such transactions) a wholly-owned Subsidiary of the Company, then such Guarantor (in the event of a sale or other disposition, by way of merger, consolidation or otherwise, of all of the capital stock of such Guarantor) or the corporation acquiring the property (in the event of a sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of such Guarantor) will be released and relieved of any obligations under its Security Guarantee; provided that the net proceeds of such sale or other disposition are applied in accordance with applicable provisions of this Indenture, if any, including, without limitation, provisions included in any Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate pursuant to a Board Resolution described in Section 2.02. Upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that such sale or other disposition was made by the Company in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee will execute any documents reasonably required in order to evidence the release of any Guarantor from its obligations under its Security Guarantee.

Any Guarantor not released from its obligations under its Security Guarantee will remain liable for the full amount of principal of and interest on the Securities of a Series that it has guaranteed and for the other obligations of any Guarantor of Securities of a Series that it has guaranteed under this Indenture as provided in this Article 10.

ARTICLE 11.

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge This Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all Securities of a Series issued hereunder, when:

(1) either:

(a) all Securities of such Series that have been authenticated (except lost, stolen or destroyed Securities that have been replaced or paid and Securities for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid to the Company) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(b) all Securities of such Series that have not been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable by reason of the making of a notice of redemption or otherwise or will become due and payable within one year and the Company has irrevocably

 

40


deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust solely for the benefit of the Holders of such Series, cash in U.S. dollars, non-callable Government Securities, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient without consideration of any reinvestment of interest to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on the Securities of such Series not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation for principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest to the date of maturity or redemption;

(2) no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing on the date of such deposit or will occur as a result of such deposit and such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound;

(3) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all sums payable by it under this Indenture; and

(4) the Company has delivered irrevocable instructions to the Trustee under this Indenture to apply the deposited money toward the payment of the Securities of such Series at maturity or the redemption date, as the case may be.

In addition, the Company must deliver an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the Trustee stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been satisfied.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to all Securities of any Series under this Indenture, if money has been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (b) of clause (1) of this Section with respect to a Series of Securities, the provisions of Section 11.02 and Section 8.06 will survive with respect to such Series of Securities. In addition, nothing in this Section 11.01 will be deemed to discharge those provisions of Section 7.07 hereof, that, by their terms, survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.

Section 11.02 Application of Trust Money Subject to the provisions of Section 8.06, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 11.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal (and premium, if any) and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with the Trustee; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money or Government Securities in accordance with Section 11.01 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 11.01; provided that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on any Securities of such Series because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series to receive such payment from the money or Government Securities held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed or assessed against the Trustee with respect to the money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 11.01 hereof.

 

41


ARTICLE 12.

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 12.01 Trust Indenture Act Controls If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by TIA §318(c), the imposed duties will control.

Section 12.02 Notices Any notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee to the others is duly given if in writing and delivered in Person or mailed by first class mail (registered or certified, return receipt requested), telex, telecopier or overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery, to the others’ address:

If to the Company:

Gladstone Commercial Corporation

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100,

McLean, Virginia 22102

Fax No.: (901) 259-2594

Telephone No.: (703) 287-5899

Attention: David J. Gladstone

With a copy to:

Bass, Berry & Sims PLC

150 Third Avenue South, Suite 2800

Nashville, TN 37201

Fax No.: 615-742-2780

Telephone No.: 615-742-6280

Attention: Lori B. Morgan

If to the Trustee:

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Fax No.: [ ]

Telephone No.: [ ]

Attention: [ ]

The Company or the Trustee, by notice to the others may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

All notices and communications (other than those sent to Holders) will be deemed to have been duly given: at the time delivered by hand, if personally delivered; five Business Days after being deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, if mailed; when answered back, if telexed; when receipt acknowledged, if telecopied; and the next Business Day after timely delivery to the courier, if sent by overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery.

Any notice or communication to a Holder will be mailed by first class mail, certified or registered, return receipt requested, or by overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery to its

 

42


address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Any notice or communication will also be so mailed to any Person described in TIA § 313(c), to the extent required by the TIA. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Holder or any defect in it will not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Holders.

If a notice or communication is mailed in the manner provided above within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the addressee receives it.

If the Company mails a notice or communication to Holders of a Series of Securities, it will mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent for such Series of Securities at the same time.

Section 12.03 Communication by Holders of Securities with Other Holders of Securities

Holders may communicate pursuant to TIA § 312(b) with other Holders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA § 312(c).

Section 12.04 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(1) an Officers’ Certificate in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee (which must include the statements set forth in Section 12.05 hereof) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent and covenants, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been satisfied; and

(2) an Opinion of Counsel in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee (which must include the statements set forth in Section 12.05 hereof) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent and covenants have been satisfied.

Section 12.05 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA § 314(a)(4)) must comply with the provisions of TIA § 314(e) and must include:

(1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been satisfied; and

(4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been satisfied.

In giving an Opinion of Counsel, counsel may rely as to factual matters on an Officers’ Certificate or certificates of public officials.

 

43


Section 12.06 Rules by Trustee and Agents

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at a meeting of Holders. The Registrar or Paying Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

Section 12.07 No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders

No past, present or future director, officer, employee, incorporator or stockholder of the Company, as such, will have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities, this Indenture, or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each Holder of Securities by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the Securities. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.

Section 12.08 Governing Law

THE INTERNAL LAW OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WILL GOVERN AND BE USED TO CONSTRUE THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES WITHOUT GIVING EFFECT TO APPLICABLE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW TO THE EXTENT THAT THE APPLICATION OF THE LAWS OF ANOTHER JURISDICTION WOULD BE REQUIRED THEREBY.

Section 12.09 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements

This Indenture may not be used to interpret any other indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or its Subsidiaries or of any other Person. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

Section 12.10 Successors

All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities will bind its successors. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture will bind its successors.

Section 12.11 Severability

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions will not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 12.12 Counterpart Originals

The parties may sign any number of copies of this Indenture. Each signed copy will be an original, but all of them together represent the same agreement.

Section 12.13 Table of Contents, Headings, etc.

The Table of Contents, Cross-Reference Table and Headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part of this Indenture and will in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

44


SIGNATURES

Dated as of [ ],             

 

COMPANY:
GLADSTONE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION
By:    
Name:  
Title:  
GUARANTORS :
[ ]
By    
Name:  
Title:  
[ ]
By    
Name:  
Title:  
each as a Guarantor
TRUSTEE:
[ ]
By    
Name:  
Title:  

 

45

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

[LETTERHEAD OF VENABLE LLP]

January 11, 2019

Gladstone Commercial Corporation

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, Virginia 22102

 

  Re:

Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have served as Maryland counsel to Gladstone Commercial Corporation, a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with certain matters of Maryland law arising out of the registration of the following securities having an aggregate initial public offering price of up to $500,000,000 (collectively, the “Securities”): (a) shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Company (“Common Shares”); (b) shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Company (“Preferred Shares”); (c) debt securities of the Company (“Debt Securities”); (d) depositary shares representing fractional interests in Preferred Shares (“Depositary Shares”); and (e) subscription rights to purchase Common Shares, Preferred Shares, Debt Securities or Depositary Shares (“Subscription Rights”), covered by the above-referenced Registration Statement, and all amendments thereto (the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”).

In connection with our representation of the Company, and as a basis for the opinion hereinafter set forth, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the following documents (collectively, the “Documents”):

1.    The Registration Statement and the related form of prospectus included therein in the form in which it was transmitted to the Commission under the 1933 Act;

2.    The charter of the Company (the “Charter”), certified by the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (the “SDAT”);

3.    The Bylaws of the Company, as amended (the “Bylaws”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

4.    A certificate of the SDAT as to the good standing of the Company, dated as of a recent date;

5.    Resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board”) relating to, among other matters, the registration of the Securities (the “Resolutions”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

January 11, 2019

Page 2

 

6.    A certificate executed by an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof; and

7.    Such other documents and matters as we have deemed necessary or appropriate to express the opinion set forth below, subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein.

In expressing the opinion set forth below, we have assumed the following:

1.    Each individual executing any of the Documents, whether on behalf of such individual or another person, is legally competent to do so.

2.    Each individual executing any of the Documents on behalf of a party (other than the Company) is duly authorized to do so.

3.    Each of the parties (other than the Company) executing any of the Documents has duly and validly executed and delivered each of the Documents to which such party is a signatory, and such party’s obligations set forth therein are legal, valid and binding and are enforceable in accordance with all stated terms.

4.    All Documents submitted to us as originals are authentic. The form and content of all Documents submitted to us as unexecuted drafts do not differ in any respect relevant to this opinion from the form and content of such Documents as executed and delivered. All Documents submitted to us as certified or photostatic copies conform to the original documents. All signatures on all Documents are genuine. All public records reviewed or relied upon by us or on our behalf are true and complete. All representations, warranties, statements and information contained in the Documents are true and complete. There has been no oral or written modification of or amendment to any of the Documents, and there has been no waiver of any provision of any of the Documents, by action or omission of the parties or otherwise.

5.    The issuance of, and certain terms of, the Securities to be issued by the Company from time to time will be authorized and approved by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, in accordance with the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions (such approval referred to herein as the “Corporate Proceedings”).

6.    Articles Supplementary creating and designating the number of shares and the terms of any class or series of Preferred Shares to be issued by the Company will be filed with and accepted for record by the SDAT prior to the issuance of such Preferred Shares.


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

January 11, 2019

Page 3

 

7.    Upon the issuance of any Securities that are Common Shares (“Common Securities”), including Common Securities which may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Securities, the total number of Common Shares issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of Common Shares that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

8.    Upon the issuance of any Securities that are Preferred Shares (“Preferred Securities”), including (a) Preferred Securities which may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Preferred Securities and (b) Preferred Securities represented by Depositary Shares, the total number of Preferred Shares issued and outstanding, and the total number of issued and outstanding shares of the applicable class or series of Preferred Shares designated pursuant to the Charter, will not exceed the total number of Preferred Shares or the number of shares of such class or series of Preferred Shares that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

9.    None of the Securities will be issued, sold or transferred in violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer set forth in Article EIGHTH of the Charter or any comparable provision in the Articles Supplementary creating and designating any class or series of Preferred Shares.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:

1.    The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.

2.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Common Securities, the issuance of the Common Securities will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement, the Resolutions and the Corporate Proceedings, the Common Securities will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

3.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Preferred Securities, the issuance of the Preferred Securities will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement, the Resolutions and the Corporate Proceedings, the Preferred Securities will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

4.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Debt Securities, the issuance of the Debt Securities will be duly authorized.


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

January 11, 2019

Page 4

 

5.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Depositary Shares, the issuance of the Depositary Shares will be duly authorized.

6.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Subscription Rights, the issuance of the Subscription Rights will be duly authorized.

The foregoing opinion is limited to the laws of the State of Maryland and we do not express any opinion herein concerning federal law or the laws of any other state. We express no opinion as to compliance with any federal or state securities laws, including the securities laws of the State of Maryland, or as to federal or state laws regarding fraudulent transfers. To the extent that any matter as to which our opinion is expressed herein would be governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Maryland, we do not express any opinion on such matter. The opinion expressed herein is subject to the effect of judicial decisions which may permit the introduction of parol evidence to modify the terms or the interpretation of agreements.

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.

This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the 1933 Act.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Venable LLP

EX-5.2

Exhibit 5.2

 

LOGO

150 Third Avenue South, Suite 2800

Nashville, TN 37201

(615) 742-6200

January 11, 2019

Gladstone Commercial Corporation

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, VA 22102

 

  Re:

Shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We are acting as counsel to Gladstone Commercial Corporation, a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the Company’s registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), filed today with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), relating to the registration and proposed public offering of up to $500,000,000 in aggregate amount of one or more series of the following securities (collectively, the “Securities”): (i) shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”); (ii) shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Preferred Stock”); (iii) senior debt securities, in one or more series (the “Senior Debt Securities”), which may be issued pursuant to an indenture to be dated on or about the date of first issuance of Senior Debt Securities thereunder, by and between a trustee to be selected by the Company (the “Trustee”) and the Company, as such indenture may be supplemented from time to time (the “Senior Indenture”); (iv) subordinated debt securities, in one or more series (the “Subordinated Debt Securities” and, together with the Senior Debt Securities, the “Debt Securities”), which may be issued pursuant to an indenture to be dated on or about the date of the first issuance of Subordinated Debt Securities thereunder, by and between the Trustee and the Company (the “Subordinated Indenture” and, collectively with the Senior Indenture, an “Indenture,” in substantially the form filed as Exhibit 4.6 to the Registration Statement, as such indenture may be supplemented from time to time); (v) depositary shares representing a fractional interest of a share of a particular class or series of Preferred Stock (the “Depositary Shares”) deposited pursuant to a deposit agreement, by and among the preferred stock depositary to be selected by the Company (the “Depositary”), the holders of such shares and the Company, which may be evidenced by the depositary receipts issued by the Depositary (the “Deposit Agreement”); and (vi) subscription rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities or Depositary Shares, which may be evidenced by subscription certificates and administered by a subscription agent to be selected by the Company (the “Subscription Agent”) (each, a “Subscription Certificate”). The Securities may be sold from time to time and on a delayed or continuous basis as set forth in the prospectus that forms a part of the Registration Statement, and as to be set forth in one or more supplements to such prospectus. In connection with the Registration Statement, you have requested our opinion with respect to the matters set forth below.


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

Page  2

January 11, 2019

 

For purposes of this opinion letter, we have examined copies of such agreements, instruments and documents as we have deemed relevant and necessary to form a basis on which to render the opinions hereinafter expressed. In such examination, we have assumed the legal capacity of all natural persons, the legal power and authority of all persons signing on behalf of other parties, the genuineness of all signatures, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to us as certified, facsimile, conformed, digitally scanned or photostatic copies and the authenticity of the originals of such latter documents. In making our examination of documents executed or to be executed, we have assumed that the parties thereto other than the Company had or will have the power, corporate or other, to enter into and perform all obligations thereunder and have also assumed the due authorization by all requisite action, corporate or other, and execution and delivery by such parties of such documents and the validity and binding effect of such documents on such parties. As to facts material to the opinions, statements and assumptions expressed herein, we have, with your consent, relied upon oral or written statements and representations of officers and other representatives of the Company, public officials and others. We have not independently verified such factual matters.

In expressing the opinions set forth below, we have assumed that:

1.    the issuance, sale, amount and terms of any Securities of the Company to be offered from time to time will have been duly authorized and established by proper action of the Board of Directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof (“Board Action”) consistent with the procedures and terms described in the Registration Statement and in accordance with the Company’s Articles of Restatement to the charter, as amended or supplemented (“Articles of Incorporation”), and bylaws, as amended, and applicable provisions of Maryland law, in a manner that does not violate any law, government or court-imposed order or restriction or agreement or instrument then binding on the Company or otherwise impair the legal or binding nature of the obligations represented by the applicable Securities and such Board Action shall remain in effect and unchanged at all times during which such Securities are offered by the Company;

2.    at the time of offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, the Registration Statement, and any other required post-effective amendments thereto, will be effective under the Act, any required prospectus supplement with respect to such Securities will have been delivered and filed with the Commission and no stop order suspending its effectiveness will have been issued and remain in effect;

3.    upon the issuance of Common Stock, including Common Stock that may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Articles of Incorporation;


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

Page  3

January 11, 2019

 

4.    upon the issuance of Preferred Stock, including Preferred Stock that may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Preferred Stock, the total number of shares of Preferred Stock issued and outstanding, and the total number of issued and outstanding shares of the applicable class or series of Preferred Stock designated pursuant to the Articles of Incorporation, will not exceed the total number of shares of Preferred Stock or the number of shares of such class or series of Preferred Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Articles of Incorporation, and prior to any issuance of Preferred Stock, any required articles supplementary with respect to such Preferred Stock shall be filed for recordation with the appropriate governmental authorities;

5.    any Depositary Shares will be issued under a Deposit Agreement between the Company and the financial institution identified therein as Depositary and as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the related Prospectus Supplement(s) in accordance with applicable law and so as not to result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company, so as to be in conformity with the Articles of Incorporation and bylaws, and so as to comply with any requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company; and the depositary receipts will be duly executed and delivered on behalf of the Company by the Depositary pursuant to any applicable Deposit Agreement;

6.    any Debt Securities will be issued under an Indenture between the Company and a Trustee and such Trustee is qualified to act as Trustee under the Indenture, the Company has filed respective Forms T-1 for the Trustee with the Commission and the Indenture has been duly qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and the Trustee in substantially the form filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement;

7.    the terms of the Debt Securities and of their issuance and sale have been duly established in conformity with the Indenture so as not to violate any applicable law or result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company, so as to be in conformity with the Articles of Incorporation and bylaws, and so as to comply with any requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company;

8.    the interest rate on the Debt Securities will not be greater than the maximum rate permitted from time to time by applicable law;

9.    any Securities convertible into or exercisable for any other Securities will be duly converted or exercised in accordance with their terms;

10.    the Securities will be delivered against payment of valid consideration therefor and in accordance with the terms of the applicable Board Action authorizing such sale and any applicable underwriting agreement, purchase agreement, distribution agreement or similar agreement and as contemplated by the Registration Statement and/or the applicable prospectus supplement;


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

Page  4

January 11, 2019

 

11.    the laws of the State of New York will be the governing law under any Indenture, Deposit Agreement or Subscription Certificate; and

12.    the Company will remain a Maryland corporation.

To the extent that the obligations of the Company with respect to the Securities may be dependent upon such matters, we assume for purposes of this opinion letter that any Trustee, Depositary or Subscription Agent is duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization; that such Trustee, Depositary or Subscription Agent will be duly qualified to engage in the activities contemplated by such Indenture, Deposit Agreement or Subscription Certificate, as applicable; that such Indenture, Deposit Agreement or Subscription Certificate, as applicable, will have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by such Trustee, Depositary or Subscription Agent, as applicable, and will constitute the legal, valid and binding obligation of such party enforceable against such party in accordance with its terms; that such Trustee, Depositary or Subscription Agent will be in compliance with respect to performance of its obligations under such Indenture, Deposit Agreement or Subscription Certificate, as applicable, with all applicable laws and regulations; and that such Trustee, Depositary or Subscription Agent will have the requisite organizational and legal power and authority to perform its obligations under such Indenture, Deposit Agreement or Subscription Certificate, as applicable.

This opinion letter is based as to matters of law solely on the applicable provisions of the federal laws of the United States and the laws of the State of New York that, in our experience, are applicable to the Securities (but not including any laws, statutes, ordinances, administrative decisions, rules or regulations of any political subdivision of the State of New York). We express no opinion herein as to any other laws, statutes, ordinances, rules, or regulations (and in particular, we express no opinion as to any effect that such laws, statutes, ordinances, rules, or regulations may have on the opinions expressed herein).

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:

(a)    The depositary receipts evidencing the Depositary Shares, upon completion of the Board Action and the due execution and delivery of a Deposit Agreement relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the Depositary named therein and due countersignature thereof and issuance against a deposit of duly authorized and validly issued Preferred Stock in accordance with the Deposit Agreement relating thereto, will be validly issued and entitle the holders thereof to the rights specified in such depositary receipts and Deposit Agreement.

(b)    The Debt Securities, upon due execution and delivery of an Indenture relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the Trustee named therein and due authentication of the Debt Securities by such Trustee, and upon due execution and delivery of the Debt Securities on behalf of the Company, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

The opinions expressed above with respect to the valid and binding nature of obligations may be limited by the following exceptions, limitations and qualifications: (i) the effect of


Gladstone Commercial Corporation

Page  5

January 11, 2019

 

bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium or other laws affecting creditors’ rights (including, without limitation, the effect of statutory and other law regarding fraudulent conveyances, fraudulent transfers and preferential transfers); (ii) the exercise of judicial discretion and the application of principles of equity, good faith, fair dealing, reasonableness, conscionability and materiality (regardless of whether the Securities are considered in a proceeding in equity or at law); (iii) the unenforceability under certain circumstances under law or court decisions of provisions providing for the indemnification of or contribution to a party with respect to a liability where such indemnification or contribution is contrary to public policy; and (iv) the unenforceability of any provision requiring the payment of attorneys’ fees, where such payment is contrary to law or public policy. The opinions rendered herein do not include opinions with respect to compliance with laws relating to permissible rates of interest.

This opinion is furnished to you in connection with the Registration Statement and may not be relied upon for any other purpose without our express written consent. No opinion may be implied or inferred beyond the opinion expressly stated. This opinion is given as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to advise you of any changes in applicable law or any facts or circumstances that come to our attention after the date hereof that may affect the opinions contained herein.

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm contained under the heading “Legal Matters.” In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the Act, or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Commission.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Bass, Berry & Sims PLC

EX-8.1
  LOGO   Exhibit 8.1
 

150 Third Avenue South, Suite 2800

Nashville, TN 37201

(615) 742-6200

 

January 11, 2019

Gladstone Commercial Corporation

1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100

McLean, Virginia 22102

 

  Re:

Gladstone Commercial Corporation

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as tax counsel to Gladstone Commercial Corporation, a Maryland corporation (“Gladstone”), and Gladstone Commercial Limited Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), in connection with Gladstone’s filing of a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), with respect to the proposed issuance and sale, from time-to-time, of one or more series of the following securities: (a) shares of Gladstone’s common stock (“Common Shares”); (b) shares of Gladstone’s preferred stock (“Preferred Shares”); (c) debt securities of Gladstone (“Debt Securities”); (d) depositary shares representing fractional interests in Preferred Shares (“Depositary Shares”); and (e) subscription rights to purchase Common Shares, Preferred Shares, Debt Securities or Depositary Shares, all of which may be sold from time to time and on a delayed or continuous basis, as set forth in the prospectus that forms a part of the Registration Statement (the “Prospectus”), and as to be set forth in one or more supplements to the Prospectus. You have requested our opinion regarding certain U.S. federal income tax matters.

In connection with this opinion, we have examined originals or copies, certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of such documentation and information provided by Gladstone as we have deemed necessary or appropriate as a basis for the opinion set forth herein. In addition, Gladstone has provided us with, and we are relying upon, a certificate containing certain factual representations and covenants of duly authorized officers of Gladstone (the “Officers’ Certificate”) relating to, among other things, the actual and proposed operations of Gladstone, the Operating Partnership and the entities in which either holds, or has held, a direct or indirect interest (Gladstone, the Operating Partnership and such entities, collectively, the “Company”).

For purposes of this opinion, we have not independently verified the facts, statements, representations and covenants set forth in the Officers’ Certificate or in any other document. In particular, we note that the Company has engaged in, and may engage in, transactions in connection with which we have not provided legal advice, and have not reviewed, and of which we may be unaware. Consequently, we have relied on Gladstone’s representations that the facts, statements, representations and covenants presented in the Officers’ Certificate and other documents, or otherwise furnished to us, accurately and completely describe all material facts relevant to our opinion. We have assumed that all such facts, statements, representations and covenants are true without regard to any qualification as to knowledge, belief or intent. Our opinion is conditioned on the continuing accuracy and completeness of such facts, statements, representations and covenants. We are not aware of any facts inconsistent with such facts, statements, representations and covenants. Any material change or inaccuracy in the facts, statements, representations and covenants referred to, set forth, or assumed herein or in the Officers’ Certificate may affect our conclusions set forth herein.

In our review of certain documents in connection with our opinion expressed below, we have assumed (a) the genuineness of all signatures on documents that we have examined, (b) the authority and capacity of the individual or individuals executing such documents and (c) that each of the documents (i) has been duly authorized, executed and delivered, (ii) is authentic, if an original, or is accurate, if a copy, and (iii) has not been amended subsequent to our review. Where documents have been provided to us in draft form, we have assumed that the final executed versions of such documents will not differ materially from such drafts.

Our opinion also is based on the correctness of the following assumptions: (a) the entities comprising the Company have been and will continue to be operated in accordance with the laws of the jurisdictions in which they were formed and in the manner described in the relevant organizational documents, (b) there will be no changes in


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the applicable laws of the State of Maryland or of any other jurisdiction under the laws of which any of the entities comprising the Company have been formed and (c) each of the written agreements to which the Company is a party will be implemented, performed, construed and enforced in accordance with its terms.

In rendering our opinion, we have considered and relied upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the regulations promulgated thereunder (the “Regulations”), administrative rulings and other interpretations of the Code and the Regulations by the courts and the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), all as they exist at the date hereof. It should be noted that the Code, Regulations, judicial decisions, and administrative interpretations are subject to change at any time and, in some circumstances, with retroactive effect. A material change that is made after the date hereof to any of the foregoing bases for our opinion could affect our conclusions set forth herein. In this regard, an opinion of counsel with respect to an issue represents counsel’s best judgment as to the outcome on the merits with respect to such issue, is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and is not a guarantee that the IRS will not assert a contrary position with respect to such issue or that a court will not sustain such a position if asserted by the IRS.

We express no opinion as to the laws of any jurisdiction other than the federal laws of the United States of America to the extent specifically referred to herein. In addition, we express no opinion on any issue relating to Gladstone, other than as expressly stated below.

Based on the foregoing and subject to the other qualifications, assumptions, representations and limitations included herein, we are of the opinion that:

1.    Gladstone has been organized and has operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) pursuant to Sections 856 through 860 of the Code for its taxable years ended December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2017, and Gladstone’s organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable it to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT for its taxable year ended December 31, 2018 and in the future.

2.    The statements contained in the Prospectus under the caption “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” insofar as such statements constitute matters of law, summaries of legal matters, or legal conclusions, fairly present and summarize, in all material respects, the matters referred to therein.

Gladstone’s continued qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon its ability to meet, through actual annual operating results, certain requirements relating to the sources of its income, the nature of its assets, its distribution levels, the diversity of its stock ownership and various other qualification tests imposed under the Code and the Regulations, the results of which are not reviewed by us. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of Gladstone’s operations for the current taxable year or any future taxable years will satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT under the Code.

This opinion is expressed as of the date hereof, and we are under no obligation to supplement or revise our opinion to reflect any legal developments or factual matters arising subsequent to the date hereof, or the impact of any information, document, certificate, record, statement, representation, covenant, or assumption relied upon herein that becomes incorrect or untrue. We will not review on a continuing basis the Company’s compliance with the documents or assumptions set forth above, or the representations set forth in the Officers’ Certificate. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of the Company’s operations for the current taxable year or any future taxable years will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

The foregoing opinion is based on current provisions of the Code and the Regulations, published administrative interpretations thereof, and published court decisions. The IRS has not issued Regulations or administrative interpretations with respect to various provisions of the Code relating to REIT qualification and taxation. No assurance can be given that the law will not change in a way that will prevent Gladstone from qualifying as a REIT.

The foregoing opinion is limited to the U.S. federal income tax matters addressed herein, and no other opinion is rendered with respect to other federal tax matters or to any issues arising under the tax laws of any other country, or any state or locality. This opinion letter speaks only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to update any opinion expressed herein after the date of this letter. This opinion letter has been prepared in


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connection with the filing of the Registration Statement and may not be relied upon by any other person or used for any other purpose without our express prior written consent, provided that this opinion may be relied upon by persons entitled to rely on it pursuant to applicable provisions of federal securities laws.

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We also consent to the references to Bass, Berry & Sims PLC under the captions “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Legal Matters” in the Prospectus. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required by the Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by the SEC.

Sincerely,

/s/ Bass, Berry & Sims PLC

EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We hereby consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of Gladstone Commercial Corporation of our report dated February 14, 2018 relating to the financial statements, financial statement schedules and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, which appears in Gladstone Commercial Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. We also consent to the reference to us under the heading “Experts” in such Registration Statement.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

McLean, VA

January 11, 2019